NAME : REZA YUNIAR D. W
CLASS : 2008 C
The Use of Animation Movies for Improving Students’
Writing Skill of Narrative Texts (A Case Study of Teaching English at eleventh
Grade Students of SMAN 2 TUBAN)
Key words: writing, senior high school students, narrative texts, film, experiment
English is an international language, which is spoken in international
events and is used as the medium of transferring information flow on science,
technology, and culture as well. As a matter of fact, students should be able to
perform language skill such as listening, speaking, reading and writing. But for
the students, writing is the most difficult subject. That is why the curriculum 2004
of Senior High School emphasizes more on developing students’ writing skill.
In this final project the writer wants to know how well the eleventh grade
students of SMA N 2 Tuban master the language skills, especially the ability
of writing a narrative text.
There are two basic problems that the writer wants to discuss, they are;
what are the students’ difficulties in understanding narrative as one of text types
and to what extent teaching writing of a narrative text using a film Brother Bear,
can improve students’ writing skill especially those of the eleventh grade students
of SMA Negeri2 Tuban in the academic year of 2010/2011. Since teaching
writing of a narrative text by using Brother Bear, a film can help students develop
their writing skill, the writer gave them more exercises on writing narrative texts
of a film.
The objectives of the study are; to know what the students’ difficulties in
understanding a narrative text and to know to what extent teaching writing of a
narrative text can improve students’ writing skill.
The research will give some useful information about a narrative text and
teaching writing by using a film Brother Bear. It will be more interesting for the
students to produce a narrative text by listening the dialogue of the film. The
techniques of collecting data were by using tests. An interview was also done to
know students’ difficulties in producing a narrative text faced by the students.
The result of the tests shows that the students’ scores in the writing draft I
were 64, 3%. It means that the test was not successful. On the other hand, in the
writing of the revision II, the students’ achievement reached 72, 9%. It means that
the test was successful.
1.1 Background of the Study
Besides our mother tongue, Indonesian and Javanese language, we
also learn English as our second language. English is very important because
nowadays English already be one of the most important languages, beside
Mandarin .In other words by mastering English either actively or passively,
we can grasp a half of this world, not only in business world but also in
politics and also in education. Our government awares how important of
English is, so they made English be one of the subject which is taught from
playgroup until the university.
In English there are four language skills, they are listening, speaking,
reading and writing. The students must master the four of language skills so
they can use English actively and also passively. Writing as a part of the
language skills besides listening, speaking and reading, must be taught
maximally by the teacher to the student.
Writing is also one media of communication. According to Byrne
(1980:24) writing is a primary means of recording speech, even though it
must be acknowledged as a secondary medium of communication, so that the
writer can conclude that writing is very important as one media of
communication, that can help us to have a good socialization, can express our
idea, feeling, and our opinion so that we can have a good interaction with our
We can see the importance of writing in daily life and also in our
social life, like in education and business aspect, for example when we write
letter or application letter. Writing also gives some other benefits. Besides
being means of communication, writing can also create jobs. In beginning
writing, it is just an activity to express our idea, opinion, or feeling in the text.
Writing can also be a hobby to spend our time, but finally in this modern life,
people can get money from doing their writing, for example a journalist,
novelist or scrip writer.
Although, writing is very important for us, it is a difficult subject
especially for the student. The reason is because writing is a mixture of our
idea, vocabulary and also grammar, according to Heaton in his book”Writing
English Language Test”(1975:138);
Writing skill are more complex and difficult to teaching, requiring,
and mastering not only of grammatical and rhetorical devices but
also conceptual and judgment, because of the difficulties of
writing, some efforts have been done to solve the problem .The
main objective is to make the writing become easier to learn for the
From the Heaton’s opinion, the writer can conclude that writing is
a very important subject because in writing we must share idea from our
brain, it is not easy to translate concept in our brain to be a written language,
and we must also be clever to choose and to combine the vocabulary to create
something that is meaningful .We also must pay attention to the grammar, so
it is normal if the student think that writing is a difficult subject because they
must pay attention to many things (idea, concept, vocabulary and grammar).
Besides that reason, there is another factor that makes writing be the
most difficult subject. The other reason is that there are a lot of many kinds of
texts in English, such as narrative, descriptive, recount, spoof and many more.
Each text has different characteristics. There are generic social function,
structure and lexicogrammatical features. Usually the student can differentiate
each text from another and they mix all kinds of texts. This will be a
challenge for the teacher to find out how the student can distinguish each kind
of text from another.
To solve that problem, a teacher must find out how to make them be
able to distinguish each kind of text from another, the teacher also must try to
develop the ability of writing, grammar and structure of the student, and they
also must find out an interesting method or visual aid to teach writing, so they
will be interested in writing class. According to Kreidler (1965:1) he had an
opinion that visual aid can be useful to the language teacher because;
a) They create situations which are outside the class room wall,
b) Introduce the students to unfamiliar cultural aspects,
c) Give reality to what might be understood, verbally by the
d) Change situations quickly and easily in a drill, provide
decoration for the classroom.
Basically the teacher can use all kinds of visual aids but they must
pay attention to how the importance of the visual aid for the teaching learning
process is, how the effectiveness of using the visual aids is, and many more
questions, related to visual aids. Any kinds of visual aid that teacher uses
must make the students comfortable with the material or the class so they can
easily understand the lesson. Kreidler (1965; 41) also has another opinion, he
Using any kind of method has goals to give the students the
opportunity to express their own idea, using the language pattern
that they have learned. And that the students need this kind of
opportunity in order to begin to use English in a way that enables
them to express their ideas, interest, feeling and needs, clearly,
correctly and confidently.
Based on Kreidler opinion, the writer can conclude that visual aid
has an important function that the teacher can use in teaching and learning
process, visual aids can also give the students an opportunity to extend their
ability and also to explore their talent.
Since long time ago teacher already use any kinds of visual aid for
example; in book, picture, song, real object, etc. In this final project the writer
chose a film, Brother Bear in a writing class, the writer hopes that by using
film the students will be more interested in learning writing in a class.
The writer will explore a genre in writing, that is, narrative, because
narrative is an interesting genre for students because they can share their idea,
opinion and their own experience, like writing in a diary. According Charles
et al (1985:129), he had an opinion:
A narrative is a story, a narrative writing is writing that tells about
a story. We use narrative writing when we tell a friend about
something interesting that happened to you at work or in school,
when you tell someone a joke, or if you write about the events of
the day in the privacy of a diary or journal.
A narrative text is very suitable for the students in writing class
because they can easily express their own idea drawn from their own
experience at school, house or anywhere, in their narrative writing.
1.2 Reasons for Choosing the Topic
Some reasons why the writer chooses the titles “the use of animation
movies for developing students’ writing skill of narrative text, a case study of
teaching English at eleventh grade students of SMA N 2 Tuban are:
a) A narrative text is the most interesting of writing genre for students
of Senior High School because it tells about something imaginative
so it will be quite relevant to their world and make them produce a
b) As a student of the education program of the English Department
the writer has a great interest in this problem. The writer would
like to find out more about the problems in teaching writing
especially to students in Senior High School.
The writer uses Brother Bear film because this film has strong
characters that are very interesting for the students, Brother Bear also has a
lot of moral values that can give a lot of social education to the students, and
Brother Bear also has a simple story.
1.3 Statements of the Problem
The problems that will be discussed in this study are:
1. What are the students’ difficulties in understanding a
2. To what extent does Brother Bear increase the ability of
students in writing a narrative text?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The objective of this study can be stated as follows:
1. To find out what the students’ difficulties in understanding
a narrative text are.
2. To find out the extent to which Brother Bear increases the
ability of students in writing a narrative text
1.5 Outline of the Study
Chapter I consists of background of the study, reason for
choosing the topic, statement of the problem, purpose of the
study, significance of the study and outline of the study.
Chapter II consists of general concept of film, element of film,
types of film, advantages of film in teaching writing, film as
visual aid in teaching writing, importance of writing, general
concept of writing, elements of writing, steps in writing,
writing in second language classroom, general concept of
narrative text, generic structure of narrative text, rules of
narrative, teaching writing of a narrative text, action research.
Chapter III consists of research design, subject of the study,
instrument of the study, test, data collection, method of
analyzing data, preparing the observation. Chapter IV consists
of the analysis of the test and the analysis of the interview.
Chapter V consists of conclusion and suggestion.
REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
A film is one of the visual aids that can be used in a writing class. It
makes lessons more fun. It can also be used to create situation for writing
classes more clearly, that the students have big enthusiasm in teaching
learning process in writing class. (Harmer, 2001:282)
2.1 General Concept of Film
Film, as stated in Microsoft Encarta (2006), is a series of images that
are projected into a screen to create the illusion of motion. Furthermore,
motion pictures are also called movies, film or cinema, are one of the most
popular forms of entertainment, that have people to immerse themselves in an
imaginary world for a short period of time.
But movies or film can also teach people about history, science, human
behavior and any other subjects. Some films combine entertainment with
instruction, makes the learning process more enjoyable. In all its forms,
cinema is an art as well as a business, and those who make motion pictures
take great pride in their creation. (Www.encharta.msn.com)
Motion pictures are recorded using specially designed cameras that
capture the images on rolls of film. After being processed and printed, the
film is run through a projector, which shines light through the film so that the
images are sparked on a screen. Most movies have accompanying sound. The
functions of film are to educate, entertain, enlighten and inspire the
audiences, and in this case the writer tried to use film or movies in the
teaching and learning process of narrative text writing. The writer thought
that film can also be used as an alternative method in teaching narrative text
writing, because the student will get a new experience in their class that is
quite different from their daily experience in their class, and for the teacher a
film can be used as an alternative method in teaching that is suitable with
their classroom situation.
Another opinion about film given by Summer (1992: 476), film is;
1) A roll of material which is sensitive to light and which is used in
camera for taking photographs or moving pictures for the cinema,
2) A story, play, etc. recorded on film to be shown in the cinema, on
Meanwhile, Kirkpatrick (1993: 495) defines film as a series of
connected cinematographic images projected on a screen. Coulson
(1978:622) states that film is story, incident, etc. recorded on film in, moving
pictures. In addition, Lorimor (1995:506) states that films can record culture,
and they can treat social or political issues and other aspect of societies to see
aspect of the world that are difficult or impossible to observe with naked
Based on the definition of film I can conclude that film is a work
combining a story, scenes, history, incident, and also music, it is recorded on
film shown as a motion picture in a cinema, TV, etc.
2.1.1 Elements of Film
According to Bordwell, a filmmaker has to prepare some basic
elements in making a good film. They are script, actors, sets, costumes,
aspect ratio lighting, sound, special effects, music and sound effect.
Most films are based on written screen plays, which can be adapted
from material from other media, such as plays, novels or can be written
originally for the screen.
Actors have a very important part in making a film successful in
market. They have to be totally involved with the story. They have to act
as if they experience the story themselves.
There are two basic kinds of set, the natural and studio constructed.
Most members of the audience are not able to differentiate, because the
skillful of the filmmakers can create desirable illusions as various and
wonderful as they want.
The clothes people wear reveal much about them, clothes can
indicate social, economics, and occupational status and express individual
e) Aspect ratio
The term aspect ratio and format refer to proportions of the film
frame. The choice of aspect ratio is crucial to the final ‘look’ of the film. A
story set in the open expanse of the desert or the sea, for example, will
have more power if the aspect ratio makes it possible to capture that
expanse visually. But if a wide screen format is used for dialogue scenes,
in which one looks at first at one character in close up and then moves to
Lighting in a film is generally manipulated as to amount, contrast,
angle and the kind. Filmmakers talk about two kinds of key lighting; high
key and low key. High key lighting tends to bring objects in the
background or different planes of action into relatively sharp focus. Lowkey
lightning generally requires the use of light from several sources rather
than from a single major source, such as the sun.
Contrast is important to the effect of lighting generally, the higher
the contrast is, the more vivid the emotional tone and three-dimensional
effect of the images will be.
g) Special effect
Special effects cinematography is one of the most complex
elements in the creation of a film. It ranges from rear screen projection, in
which previously photographed material is projected in back of the actors,
to the use of elaborate optical benches in which photographed material is
re-short to produce entirely new results.
Most film viewers know that contemporary films use music in
various ways, but few are aware of the extents to produce its effects
emotionally and usually ‘blends in’, film music often not consciously
Musical usage can range from a stringer –a sharp, usually loud
chord that accentuates surprise, revolution, or tenor-to a lush string section
playing during a tender or passionate love scene to convey the emotions of
two peoples. Music can totally change the mood of scene, rendering it
comic, and serious, or deeply disturbing, depending on the filmmaker’s
i) Sound effect
Sound effect involves not only noises that are directly related to
what is seen on the screen, such as gunfire, storms, water, and wind. They
can also be used to add to the mood and tone of scenes without being
directly motivated by the action. With the increasing development of
electronic music and varieties of amplified sound, the lines between
naturalistic sound effects, music, and electronically generated sound that is
used purely for emotional impact have blurred. Bordwell (57:1997)
From Brodwell’s opinion, the writer can conclude that the element
of film are Script ,actors ,sets ,costumes, dialogue, aspect ratio, lighting,
special effect and music.
2.1.2 Types of Film
Bordwell and Thompson (1997:50) defined the types of movie or film as
(1) Documentary film
A documentary film supports to present factual information about
the world outside the film. As a type of films, documentaries present
themselves as factually trustworthy. According to Bordwell and
Thompson (1997:44) there are two types of documentary films, they are;
a. Compilation films; produced by assembling images from archival
b. Direct cinema; recording an on going event ‘as it happens’ with
minimal interference by the filmmaker.
(2) Fictional film
A fictional film presents imaginary beings, places or events. Yet, if
a film is fictional, that does not mean that it is completely unrelated
For one thing, not everything shown or implied by the fiction films
needs to be imaginary, a typical fictional film stages its events; they are
designed, planned, rehearsed, filmed and refilmed. In a fictional film the
agents are portrayed or depicted by an intermediate, not photographed
directly in documentary.
(3) Animated film
Animated films are distinguished from live-action ones by the
unusual kinds of work that are done at production stage. Animation films
do not do continuously filming outdoor action in the real time, but they
create a series of images by shooting one frame at a time.
(4) Experimental or avant-grade film
Some filmmakers set out to create films that challenge orthodox
notion of what movies can show and how it can show it.
Experimental films are made for many reasons, they are;
1) The filmmakers want to express personal experience or view
2) The filmmakers may also want to explore some possibilities of
the medium it self,
3) The experimental filmmakers may tell no story but they may
create a fictional story that will usually challenge the viewer.
2.1.3 Advantages of Film in Teaching Writing
Harmer (2002:282) states that the advantages of using film in teaching
and learning process are:
1. Seeing language – in- use
One of the main advantages of film is that students do not just hear
language, they see it too. This greatly aids comprehension, since for
example, general meaning and moods are often conveyed though
expression, gesture and other visual clues. Thus we can observe how
intonation can match facial expression. All such, paralinguistic features
give valuable meaning clues and help viewers to see beyond what they are
listening to, and thus interpret the text more deeply.
2. Cross – cultural awareness.
A film uniquely allows students to look at situations far beyond
their classrooms. This is especially useful if hey want to see, for example,
typical British ‘body language ‘ when inviting someone out, or how
American speak to waiters. Film is also of great values in giving students a
chance to see such things as what kinds of food people eat in other
countries and what they wear.
3. The power of creation
When the students make their own film as media in teaching and
learning process, they are given the potential to create something
memorable and enjoyable. The camera operators and directors suddenly
have considerable power. The task of filmmaking can provoke genuine
creative and communicative uses of the language, with students finding
themselves doing new things in English.
For all the reasons so far mentioned, most students show an
increased level of interest when they have a chance to see language in use
as well as hear it, and when this is coupled with interesting tasks.
2.1.4 Film as Visual Aids in Teaching Writing
As a good teacher, we need to use visual aids as a method in teaching
and learning process because by using visual aids, teacher can give new
atmosphere in their class so that the students have a big enthusiasm in
teaching learning process, besides visual aid can help students master the
material that the teacher gives to them.
From Heaton’s statement above the writer can conclude that besides the
other language skills (reading, listening, and speaking), writing is one of
language skills that is more complex and difficult than the others. Because
students must mastering the grammar and vocabulary. The students must
have concept of writing not only in their brain but they also have to translate
it in writing language, and it is difficult to write concepts that exist in our
brain. So more students assume that writing is a difficult lesson and the result
is that the student did not want to study writing or make a text of writing. It is
important for teacher to find a method that can make students easily master
the material and they can also enjoy the writing class. The writer hopes that
film can be an alternative method in teaching narrative texts writing.
There are many lots of methods of teaching that can be applied in
teaching and learning process such as using pictures, song, card, games, film,
drama and more methods that the teacher can use. This method can help the
students and teacher in teaching and learning process.
The English teacher can use any kinds of method or visual aid but they
must remember that the method must be suitable with their classroom
situation, it must be able to make the students feel comfortable and enjoy the
lesson so they can easily master the material.
He also had opinion in his book, Visual Aid for Teaching English to
Speakers of Other Languages (1965; 41), that the use of any kind of methods
has goals to give the students the opportunity to express their own idea, using
the language pattern that they have learned. The function of using all kinds of
method of opportunity in using English in a way that enables them to express
their ideas, interest feeling and needs, clearly, correctly and confidently.
From that statement the writer can conclude that visual aids are very
important and useful in teaching learning process so that students will be
more enthusiastic in learning writing in classroom.
2.2 Importance of Writing
Writing, as one of the language skills, has given an important
contribution to human work. There are so many records of recent activities
that we can read today, which can also be read in the future. Some important
features of writing activities that are usually done by people are as follows:
(1) Teachers write some important things on the black board, or students may
write some notes that are dictated by the teacher.
(2) Lots of people who are going to apply for job in offices write application
letters. Today, many companies ask applicants to write their forms in
English. An applicant must be fluent both in spoken and written English.
(3) Many organizations or foundations get offers from foster parents from
foreign countries for some students who have good achievement in their
study. The student who is going to be selected is asked first to write an
essay in English about their country (in this case Indonesian students).
For those who get the opportunity to win the selection are asked to write
in English to their foster parents at least once a month; therefore, they
need to have ability to write in an acceptable English.
2.2.1 General Concept of Writing
Generally, writing can be interpreted as the act of forming or tracing a
character on paper or other suitable materials with a pen or pencil. Rivers
(1968:242) distinguished writing from other skills according to the form, it
was from the simplest form to the most highly developed one. From its
simplest one, writing can be conceived as the act of putting down in
conventional graphic from something that had been spoken.
Another definition is given by Michael (1981:10) that writing could be
a systematical visible and permanent representation of the auditory and
transient phenomena of speech, Byrne (1980:24) defines that writing is a
primary means of recording speech, even though it must be acknowledged as
a secondary medium of communication
According to Enre (1988:148) the aims of writing are:
a) Desire to explain or to inform
b) Desire to tell something as it was looked and heard
c) Desire to tell something about something happened
d) Desire to convince someone
Mean while, Flower suggests a more elaborate definition Flower,
Writing is a social act that can only occur within a specific situation.
It is therefore influenced both by the personal attitudes and social
experiences that the writer brings to writing and the impacts of the
particular political and institutional context in which it interviews,
analyses of surrounding practices and other techniques, researchers
seek to develop more complete accounts to local writing contexts
In line with Flower, Nystrand also states that writing is a matter of
elaborating text in accordance with what the writer can reasonably assume
that the reader knows and expects. Nystrand states:
Writing is a matter of elaborating text in accordance with what the
writer can reasonably assume that the reader knows and expects, and
the process of reading is a matter of predicting text in accord with
what the reader assumes about the writer’s purpose (1989: 75).
Meanwhile, Meyers says that writing is a way to produce language
when you do and when you speak. Writing is communicating with others in a
verbal way. Meyers states:
Writing is a way to produce language, which you do naturally when
you speak. Writing is communicating with others in a verbal way.
Writing is also an action-a process of discovering and organizing
your ideas, putting them on a paper and reshaping and revising them
Harmer in How to Teach Writing states “Writing is a process that what
we write is often heavily influenced by the constraints of genres, then these
elements have to be present in learning activities” (2004: 86).
Quoted Plato’s statement that “Written language addresses the reader
when its author is absent. Written language has no capacity to respond”
Randal Holme, states, “Writing is an ability to make a form of words
that in general it may have a higher truth value than the fact that it has set it
From the definitions above the writer can conclude that writing is a
way to produce language that comes from our thought. By using writing, we
can share our idea, feeling or anything that exist in our mind. It is written on a
paper or a computer screen. It is influenced both by the personal attitudes and
social experiences that the writer brings to writing and the impacts of the
particular political and institutional contexts. It is also a process that what we
write is influenced by the constraints of genre and have to be present in
learning activities. Writing will be read whenever the author is absent.
Writing is also an ability to make a form of words that have a higher value.
2.2.2 Elements of Writing
Harris stated that (1969:68-69) there are four elements of writing,
a. Mastering Vocabulary/Diction
He stated that vocabulary’s mastering / diction played an important
role in a language, especially in the writing activity. The choice of vocabulary
could describe the writer’s knowledge. The number of words that is mastered
by a writer could indicate that he/she mastered a number of concepts, mastery
of vocabulary can improve by reading and listening a lot.
Furthermore, Keraf (1982:16) said that the vocabulary’s mastering
could be observed from two sides, those were quantitative and qualitative.
Quantitative vocabulary’s mastering is defined as a must for the
students to master the vocabulary in a language as much as possible, in this
case, the students should master the vocabulary actively, it means that they
are able to use vocabulary in communication. Qualitative vocabulary’s
mastering consist of knowledge, meaning of words and structure of words,
Qualitative vocabulary’s mastering will support the students to choose the
appropriate words, so it can support the effectiveness of using language. The
mastering of quantitative and qualitative vocabulary is a must. The mastering
of quantitative vocabulary is the first demand to broaden a draft, while the
mastering of qualitative vocabulary is the second demand to deepen the
knowledge of words.
b. Mastering Grammatical Rule’s / Sentence Structure
Mastering grammatical rule’s / sentence structure consists of
phonology, morphology and syntax. Phonological rules don’t have any roles
in the writing activity, while morphological and syntactical rules play some
important roles in the writing activity, it deals with the effective use of the
right affixes, conjunction, prefixes and composition, the structure of the
Coherence means that the writer’s paragraph is easy to read and
understand because the supporting sentences are in some kind of logical order
and the ideas are connected by use of appropriate transition signals.
One of the most difficult and confusing aspects of the English
language is spelling system. There is often a discrepancy between the
pronunciation of a word and its spelling. They cannot always know how to
spell a word by its pronunciation or how to pronounce it by its spelling, to
avoid this problem, the students are suggested to open dictionaries before
they are going to write.
2.2.3 Steps in Writing
There are six steps how to write well:
1. Exploring Ideas
First, writing involves discovering ideas. Before writing, let our
mind explore freely. Second, record those thoughts by writing whatever
you can. As in speaking, you must have something to say, a reason for
saying it, and someone to whom you talk.
a. Your subject
Before writing, ask yourself, “what is the subject or the
material do students want to write about and what do you know about
it?” Choose a subject that you care about and know about (or find out).
Then you say it more clearly and confidently. You must select and then
narrow your subject from the general that you will practice doing in the
exercises that follow.
b. Your purpose
After deciding the subject, now ask yourself, “What is the
purpose?” Communicating always has a purpose: to inform, to
persuade, or to entertain or may be to do all the three. You could
inform, persuade, or entertain your classmates with examples unusual
you have experienced at your job.
c. Your audience
After deciding your subject and your purpose, ask yourself,
“Who is the audience?” The answer will determine what you say about
your subject and what purpose you hope to achieve. You may need to
provide a lot of evidence to persuade a reader who does not agree with
your opinion, but provide far less for someone who tends to agree with
you (Flower, 1989:69-71).
2. Writing draft I
The second step of the writing process involves writing your
thoughts on paper or on the computer. Don’t worry about making mistakes
because you will probably change your mind and your wording later. This
step is called writing draft I. It is a time to relax, write quickly and begin
organizing your thoughts.
These are some steps of writing draft I:
One way to capture your thought is by brainstorming, or listing
thought as they come to you. You might brainstorm twice or three times to
generate more ideas
In clustering, you write your subject in the middle of the page
and then circle it. You write related ideas around the circle as they
come to you. Then you circle the ideas and connect them to your
subject circle. These related ideas are like branches.
c. Free writing
Another way to get started is by free writing. You simply
write about the subject without worrying about sentence, structure,
spelling, logic, and grammar. Write, as you would speak so that you
can get your ideas down fast (Flower, 1989:71-74).
After you have put your ideas into words, you can begin
organizing them. This process involves:
a. Selecting, subtracting, and adding
You have to think again about your purpose and audience.
What goals do you want to accomplish- to inform, persuade or
entertain? What point do you want to make? And what should you tell
your readers so that you can accomplish the goals? It is better that you
return to your pre writing and do the following:
1. Underline or highlight the best ideas of your brainstorming list,
putting related ideas together. Add to the list as more ideas come to
you and remove or ignore the parts that are not related to your
2. Choose the part of the clustering diagram that has the best ideas.
Do the second clustering that explores those ideas in greater detail.
Ignore the part of the original diagram that is not related to your
3. Circle or highlight the best part of your pre writing. Do a second
even a third free writing on them? Ignore the parts of each free
writing that are not related to your choice and focus more
specifically on your subject and add more details (Flower,
After selecting, subtracting, and adding, the writer can make
an informal outline (Flower, 1989:76).
4. Writing revision I
You have done some writing revision I, selected your best ideas,
expanded them, and arranged them in some reasonable order. Now you
can begin the first paragraph. Don’t worry about being perfect, so write
fast as if you were speaking to your readers.
Some steps for revision can be stated as follows:
a. Say something before you write it.
b. Do fast handwriting or computer typing.
c. Use only one side of the paper.
d. Leave wide margins and double space to make room for changes.
e. Resave your work every five or ten minutes on the computer
5. Revising the Draft
Revising is one of the most important steps in writing, especially
for people who write in a second language. Revising means to improve
what you have already written. When you revise, you examine how well
your first draft makes its point and achieves its purpose for its audience.
That may require rearranging ideas, developing further ideas, cutting out
ideas that do not support your point, and change the wording of your
These are some tips for revising:
a. Make notes in the margins or write new material on separate sheets of
b. Circle words you think you misspelled or that you want to change later.
c. Tape or staple additions where you want them to go.
d. On the computer, use cut and paste or insert commands to move them
to a new page.
e. Print out a double space copy for revisions: look over and revise in
pencil (Flower, 1989:78).
6. Producing the revision II
There are two steps in producing revision II, they are:
After you have revised your paragraph, you can edit your work. Check
it carefully. Focus on grammar, words choice, verb forms,
punctuation, and spelling. Read the paper more than once.
Copy it over or print it out again with all your corrections. This draft
should be neat and should represent your best effort.
The final stage in the revision process is proofreading. That means
carefully reading your draft more than once to check that your
revisions and editorial changes.
2.2.4 Writing in the Second Language Classroom
According to what has been stated by the researchers of Cumming
upon the students of Senior High School in Japan Relc Journal (1995:33),
which is quoted by Limbong (1997:27) in her thesis entitled “Suggested
Materials for Teaching Writing”, writing proficiency in L2 (second language)
is influenced by the ability of the students in acquiring L2. In this case, it is
clear then, that writing ability can be learned like the mastery of a language
that can also be learned.
As the writer discussed on the previous chapter, writing skill is
complex and difficult to teach since it does not only mean to put down a
graphic from a piece of paper. It involves at least 5 components as stated by
Harris (1969:68-69) in his book “Testing English as a Second Language”.
Those components are:
Firstly is on content. It consists of the substance of writing and the
ideas expressed. Secondly is on the form used. It is about the organization of
the content. Thirdly is on the grammar, the employment of grammatical form
and syntactic pattern. Fourth is on the style. It is about the choice of the
structures and lexical items to give a particular tone or flavor to writing. Fifth
is on the mechanic, the use of the graphic convention of the language.
Another component pointed out by Christina consists of three
elements as follow “We have three major teaching points in the writing
composition: 1) correct form of the language on the sentence, 2) mechanics
of punctuation, and 3) content organization” (1976:205).
For those reasons above, most of the Senior High School students
find writing to be confusing and making them give up.
To encourage the students in writing, an English teacher plays an
important role to develop their ability. The teacher should be patient to
support them. He or she has to give them a lot of trainings and practices how
to express their ideas. He or she has to try to find ways of composing writing
that is easy for them. By doing so, students will not consider that writing
makes them stressed.
2.3 General Concept of Narrative Text
A narrative is a story. A narrative text is a writing that tells about a
story. We use narrative writing when we tell a friend about something
interesting that happened to you at work or in school, when you tell someone
a joke, or if you write about the events of the day in the privacy of a diary or
Parera (1993:5) had opinion that a narrative was one of the forms of
developing writing, for example characters told the history of something
based on the development of writing from time to time
Meanwhile, Keraf (1989; 136) had an opinion that the narrative was
a form of composition, which had the main objectives.
In the form of activities that were tied together to become an event
that happened in a certain time
According to Charles et al (1985:129) most narratives have the
a. It tells story of an event or events
b. The events are usually arranged in a chronological order, in the
order in which they occurred in time.
2.3.1 Generic Structure of a Narrative Text
Derewianka (1990: 32) states that the steps for constructing a
In which the writer tells the audience about who the character in the
story are, where the story is taking place, and when the action is happen.
(Can be a paragraph, a picture or opening chapter)
The story is pushed along by a series of events, during which we
usually expect some sort of complication or problem to arise. It just would
not be so interesting if something unexpected did not happen. This
complication will involve the main character(s) and often serves to
(temporally) toward them, for reaching their goal. Narratives mirror the
complications we face in life and tend to reassure us that they are
In a “satisfying “narrative, a resolution of the complication is brought
about. The complication may be resolved for better or for worse, but it is
rarely left completely unresolved (although this is of course possible in
certainly types of narrative, which leave us wondering (how is the end?)
Based on the statement above, the writer concludes that the generic
structures of recount are:
Firstly is an orientation. The readers are introduced to the main
characters and possibly some minor characters. Some indication is generally
given of where the action and when an action happened.
Secondly is complication. This is where the writer tells how the
problem arises, sometimes something unexpected events will happen.
Thirdly is resolution. It is an optional closure of event. The
complication may be resolved for better or for worse, but it is rarely left
completely unresolved. The writer can conclude that resolution is the end of a
Furthermore, the generic structure of narrative text can be shortened
as; orientation, complication and resolution.
2.3.2 Rules of a Narrative
Derewianka (1990: 32) also states several common grammatical
patterns of a recount, they are; specific, often individual participants with
defined identities. Major participants are human, or sometimes animals with
human characteristics; use of action verbs to refer to events; use of past tense
to locate events in relation to speaker’s or writer’s time; use of conjunctions
and time connectives to sequence of events; use of adverbs and adverbial of
phrases to indicate place and time; use of adjectives to describe nouns.
From the statements above, the writer can conclude that the rules of a
recount text consist of; focus on individual participants, use of nouns and
pronouns to identify people, animals and things involved; focus on a
temporal of sequence of pictures; use of action verbs (material processes) to
refer to events; use of past tense to locate events in relation to writer’s or
speaker’s time; use adverbs or adverbial of phrases to indicate place and
time; and the use of material or action clauses.
2.3.3 Teaching Writing of a Narrative Text
As an international language, English is also taught in Indonesia as a
foreign language. The goal of English language teaching in Indonesia, as
stated in the 12 December 1967 decree of the Indonesian Ministry of
Education and Culture, is to give students a working knowledge of the
English language with the following detailed objectives in the order of
importance: first is to develop students’ effective reading ability, second is to
facilitate students to understand spoken language, third is to develop students’
writing skill, and to develop students’ speaking skill.
One of the objectives of English language teaching is to give
students an effective writing ability. Learning to write is a process of
discovering and organizing ideas, putting them on paper and reshaping and
Many students find writing to be the most difficult lesson since they
have to write in English to produce an English text. They have to write down
what they think of in their mind and state it on a paper by using a correct
A well-written story lets your readers respond to some events; even
they can almost feel the same. The action details and dialogues put the readers
in the scene and make it happen for them. Moreover, it often engages readers’
emotion so powerfully. It can play a large role on other types of writing.
To figure the problems out, the writer tries to use a film of narrative
text in teaching written cycle. Students can feel more relaxed in learning
writing and it will be easier for them to produce a narrative text.
2.4 Brother Bear
The writer used this film in teaching narrative writing because she
thought that, she needed to use a new method or visual aid in teaching and
learning process so that the teacher can create an interesting material for
Brother Bear is the forty-third animated feature in the Disney
animated features canon. A traditionally animated film, it was produced by
the Florida satellite of Walt Disney Feature Animation and released on
November 1, 2003, by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution. It
was Originally titled Bears, it was the third and final Disney animated feature
produced primarily by the Feature Animation studio at Disney – MGM
Studios in Orlando Florida.
2.4.1 Brother Bear, a Film
1) Directed by : Aaron Blaise and Robert Walker.
2) Produced by : Igor Khait and Chuck Williams
3) Brother bear written by :
a) Lorne Cameron,
b) David Hoselton,
c) Tab Murphy,
d) Save Bencich (screens play),
e) Broose Johnson (story),
f) Jeffrey Stepakoff (additional writer, story)
4) The movie stars the voices of:
a. Joaquin Phoenix as Kenai
b. Jeremy Suarez as Koda
c. Rick Moranis as Rutt
d. Dave Thomas as Tuke
e. Jason Raize as Denahi
f. D.B. Sweeney as Sitka
g. Joan Copeland as Tanana
h. Michael Clarke Duncan as Tug
5) Music by : Phil Collins and Mark Mancina
a) Great spirit
c) On my way
e) No way out
f) Look through my eyes
6) Distributed : Walt Disney Pictures
7) Release date(s) : November 1, 2003
8) Running time : 85 minutes
9) Language : English
10) Preceded : Treasure planet (2002)
11) Followed by : Home on the Range (2004)
12) Specifications : technicolor, 35 mm1, 85:1 (partly) and
2.35:1 (partly) (color, Dolby
13) Genre : animation, fantasy, comedy, drama
14) MPAA rating : G
2.4.2 Elements of Brother Bear
1. Kenai: the youngest of three brothers who gets turned into a
bear, to teach him to see through their eyes.
2. Denahi: the middle brother
3. Sitka: the oldest brother
4. Koda: a wisecracking ear cub who helps Kenai on his journey
to where the lights touch the earth.
5. Rutt: a comic Canadian moose
6. Tuke: another comic Canadian moose
7. Tanana: the shaman-woman of Kenai’s tribe,
8. Tug: wise old bear
b. Setting : long time ago in a post – ice age North America.
c. Theme : how to be a real mature man.
d. Costumes : clothes that usually used in a post – ice age North
e. Special effect : technicolor, 35 mm1, 85:1 (partly) and 2.35:1
(partly) (color, Dolby digital sound)
f. Sound effect :Dolby digital sound
Dialogue :use English language
2.4.3 Summary of Brother Bear
Long time ago in a post ice North America, there were three brothers
named Kenai, Denahi and Sitka. Denahi the middle brother, Sitka the oldest,
work hard. They think that Kenai should work more and play less. Kenai, the
youngest, hates bears because they fight for the same food, overtake the land,
and ruin his coming-of-age ceremony. Each brother was given his own totem
when they came of age: Sitka, the eagle of guidance and Denahi, the wolf of
wisdom. At the ceremony, Kenai is presented by the bear of love. Kenai
questions the totem he has been given: “you think love has anything to do
with being a man?!”
When Sitka is killed in a battle by a bear that Kenai provoked,
Tanana, the tribal shaman woman, officiate a funeral rite for Sitka. Afterward,
Kenai throws away his totem and ignores the village teachings of brotherhood
with animals. He sets out to hunt the bear for revenge and eventually kills it.
Angered by Kenai’s actions, the great spirits, through the spirit of Sitka,
transform him into a bear. Unfortunately his other brother, Denahi, who was
pursuing Kenai to stop him, does not realize what has happened. He finds
Kenai’s torn clothes and believes the bear he sees took his brother’s life. In
grief, he remembers Kenai’s words to him and, as he had done.
Kenai falling into the river, Kenai awakens on the shore and in the
presence of Tanana, who eases him through his initial shock at his change.
Although she cannot understand his bear speech, she advises Kenai to find the
mountain where the light touch the earth so that he can ask Sitka’s spirit to
change him to the former figures, and then she disappears without giving him
directions. To Kenai’s surprise, he finds he can talk with the other animals but
the only animals who are willing to talk to him are two sibling mice, named
Rutt and Tuke, who are more interested in cracking jokes at Kenai’s claims to
have been a man than helping him. A long the way, Kenai meets a talkative, a
bear cub named Koda who saves him from a trap, and asks him to accompany
him on the way to the salmon run where the bears gather to fish near the
mountain were the light touch the earth.
What follows is a journey in which Kenai, Denai don’t know who
is now hunting him, grows rather fond of the irresistible Koda whom he
learns shares his spiritual beliefs. This in turn puts his hatred of bears in a
stark perspective that forces him to reconsider, especially when he learns that
koda sees humans as the same sort of dangerous monsters as he himself once
believe bears to be. This culminates when they finally reach the salmon run
and Kenai has the awkward experience of being surrounded by bears. Yet, the
bears quickly accept him and he in turn learns about the loving community of
these animals that makes his hate seem so foolish even as he leans to enjoy
This contentment is shattered when Koda tells the story of his
separation from his mother. Kenai is aghast as he puts the pieces together and
realizes the story is about the fight he and his brothers had with the bear.
Kenai realizes to his horror that the bear he killed was Koda’s mother.
Distraught at the harm he has done to a cub he has grown to love, Kenai flees
the gathering. The next morning koda follows and asks what’s wrong with
great shame and remorse, but also with great moral courage Kenai confesses
.At this traumatic revelation, Koda is left grief stricken and runs away in loss
and betrayal while ignoring kenai’s apologizes and please for forgiveness.
With nothing left to keep him with bears, Kenai scales the
mountain to contact the spirit of Sitka. Koda mourns alone, but then has a
chance encounter with the squabbling Tuke and Rutt, who reconcile because
of their brotherhood, which makes Koda realize the importance of is
friendship with Kenai. Meanwhile, Denahi finally tracks down Kenai; in the
ensuing fight, Koda, having forgiven Kenai, rushes in to help at a critical
moment in fight. Kenai struggles to protect koda and is willing to sacrifice
himself to save the cub, much as Koda’s mother had done. With this selfless
act, Kenai shows that he has profoundly changed for the better and Sitka, who
had been watching everything in the form of an eagle, changes Kenai back
into a human.
Yet, while Kenai has regained is humanity, he can no longer talk
with Koda, a cub who is now orphaned yet again by the bear he had come to
accept as his brother. Rather than abandon koda, Kenai tells Sitka that Koda
needs him. Denahi calls Kenai “little brother” instead of “baby brother” and
Sitka transforms Kenai (by his choice) back into a bear. He and his brothers
hug together and say goodbye while Koda and his mother’s spirit do the
The film ends with Kenai as a bear, accompanied by Koda, being
welcomed back by his tribe and pressing his paw print tom he cliff wall,
which bears the handprints of countless generations of other tribe members
who also fulfilled the calling of the their totem animals.
2.5 Action Research
A form of research, which is becoming increasingly significant in
language education, is action research. This research has been defined in a
number of ways. Kemmis and Mc. Taggart (in Nunan, 1993:17) argue:
The three defining characteristics of action research are firstly it is
carried out by practitioners (for our purpose, classroom teacher) rather than
outside researcher. Secondly, it is collaborated. Thirdly, it is aimed at
They said further, “Action research is a group of activities and a
piece of descriptive research carried out by a teacher in his or her own
classroom, without changing the phenomenon under investigation.
Best (1978:12) states that action research focuses on the immediate
application, not on the development of theory, nor upon general application.
From all definitions above, the writer concludes that action research
is an action in a research, which can be done by the teacher, researcher, and
the teacher with his/her colleague, etc. This involves a group of students to
improve learning and teaching-learning process or to enhance the students’
understanding of the lesson.
Byrne (1980:24) writing is a primary means of recording speech.
Heaton (1975:138)Writing English Language Test.
Limbong (1997:27)Suggested Materials for Teaching Writing.
THE ASSIGNMENT OF FINAL EXAM OF WRITING V
Teaching Vocabulary Through Reading Passage in the Fifth Year Students of SDN Sidomukti The English Language Education UNIROW Tuban.
In the learning language, one must know about the word, because it can be said that words or vocabulary are a main of part of language, and it is a basic element of language compared to other language components. To know vocabulary and reading are two things which are closely related to each other. One cannot comprehend a reading passage well if he or she does not know or understand vocabulary since vocabulary is one of the basic element to build a reading passage. In fact, the writer finds out that it is not easy to teach vocabulary of English to children because of the specific characteristic that children have, so many students find difficulties in pronunciation and spelling in English learning. To find a way out of the problems above, the writer tries to offer an alternative technique to teach vocabulary by using reading passage. In teaching vocabulary the teacher can refer to Lado’s way or technique, that are : hearing the word, pronunciation word and grasping the meaning.
Reading is one of the important of English, which the students must master in order that they can follow the teaching learning process. By applying this skill everyday, they will get much information, so that they can keep our mind on the events that occur around the world. For that, the teacher must be a good facilitator and coordinator to give motivation and follow up in learning new word through reading passage. The writer wants to study the use of reading passage to maximize the vocabulary learning because it can help to stimulate motivation for reading and give the easier way of learning to the students. It means their acquisition of vocabulary will increase since they will read the same new vocabulary more than once.
This research was done to answer the following problems : (1) how is the Teaching of Vocabulary Through Reading Passage at SDN Sidomukti? (2) what difficulties do the students of the fifth year of SDN Sidomukti face in learning vocabulary by using reading passage?. To answer this problems the writer used a descriptive-qualitative analysis. The subject of this study is Elementary teacher and the fifth year student. To collect the data the writer used observation and interview guidelines as the instrument. In observation on the teaching –learning process the reading passage that is used to teach vocabulary has interesting topic to make the students interested to read. But in teaching the teacher has some problems, like: motivating the students and choosing passage. In selecting a short passage, there are some criteria, the topic is familiar with the students, structure are simple. The writer did an observation by using some stages, which were needed in teaching vocabulary, they are: preparation, presentation, and the last evaluation.
Based on the analysis of the data which is obtained through observation check list and interview guidelines, in teaching vocabulary to fifth grade, the teacher should develop the vocabulary to be taught on the need of materials used whose themes are based on the students’ level. In this study the teacher hopes the students understand reading material easily and it can add the students’ ability, especially in improving their reading comprehension skill. So, we can say that the success of teaching-learning depend much on the teacher’s creativity and motivation given by the teacher.
This chapter presents about Background of the study, The statement of the problems, The purpose of this study, Significance of the study, Scope and limitation, and Definition of the key terms.
1.1 Background of the Study
English is an international language so that its role is very important in the world. It is a foreign language that must be taught in Indonesia. In Elementary, Junior and Senior high school even in University English has been taught as a compulsory subject. It mean that English must be taught in any schools where the society regards it necessary. Mastery of foreign language must be acquired through a process. So it is essential that English should be taught at the early ages. Part of English teachers’ materials is vocabulary.
Murcia (1982) states that vocabulary should be recognized as a basic element in language instruction from the beginning stage. Besides, learning language practically always means primary learning the words of that language. Moreover vocabulary is the center of language and the important component of any language. Vocabulary plays very important roles in developing four language skills. Vocabulary learning is central to language acquisition, whether the language is first, second or foreign (Marianne Celce-Murcia :285). The more vocabulary the students have , the easier the students develop the sentence. The limited stock of vocabulary is the common difficulty for elementary school students in learning English. So they do not comprehend the reading text easily. The teachers often ignore how to activate students concept of what they are going to read.
In an elementary school, students often get difficulties to understand what they read. It is because they often find some difficult words in the text. Reading without knowing the meaning will make them bored. Vocabulary and reading are two things closely related to each other. One cannot comprehend a reading passage well if he does not know or understand vocabulary since vocabulary is one of the basic element to build a reading passage. For that we should concern with the vocabulary enrichment because it is assumed that there is close correlation ship between the sizes of one’s vocabulary with the intellectual one processing in reading comprehension. That means to stop increasing one’s vocabulary is to stop intellectual reading comprehension growth. Method of teaching vocabulary also influences the students vocabulary acquisition. The proper methods can make the teaching vocabulary run successfully.
Reading is one of the important skills of English, which the students must master in order that they can follow teaching learning process. As a matter of fact, many children get bored soon as they start to read. An experience has shown that children often fall in comprehending a reading passage which consists of non simple sentence. The aim of teaching reading is to help children become better readers. The teacher of reading wants his pupils to be able to read, to use reading effectively as a learning tool and to enjoy an appropriate reading.
The teachers have to make children interested in the material of reading given. They should choose the passage, which have interesting topics so that even without the teacher guidance, they will have a great desire to read and comprehend the passages during the reading interest.
The writer wants to study the use of reading passage to maximize the vocabulary learning because it can help to stimulate motivation for reading and give the easier way of learning to the students. Hopefully if they enjoy their reading, it will increase their willingness to read more. It means their acquisition of vocabulary will increase since they will read the same new vocabulary more than once. Therefore, the writer is interested in writing a skripsi entitled “Teaching Vocabulary Through Reading Passage in Fifth Year Students on SDN Sidomukti” as the subject of discussion in this skipsi.
1.2 The Statement of the Problems
From the background above, the writer formulates the problems as follows:
- How is the teaching of vocabulary through reading passage at SDN Sidomukti conducted?
- What difficulties of the students of the fifth year of SDN Sidomukti face in learning vocabulary by using reading passage?
1.3 The Purpose of this Study
In line with the problems formulated, the writer than wishes:
- To describe how the teaching of vocabulary through reading passage conducted to the fifth grade students of elementary school SDN Sidomukti .To know the difficulties of the students of the fifth year of SDN Sidomukti face in learning vocabulary by using reading passage at elementary school.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study hopefully will be useful for:
- The English Teachers
The finding can be used as a main teacher guide in the process of teaching vocabulary. Moreover, it will give useful contribution to the English teacher to take an active role in developing the students’ ability especially in improving their reading comprehension skill.
- The Students
The findings can be useful for the development of students’ ability in comprehending the reading text.
1.5 Scope and Limitation
The scope of this study is teaching English at elementary school. However, this study is limited to deal only with the teaching of vocabulary through reading passage. It is intended to improve the students’ reading comprehension skill. Beside it, this study is applied to the fifth grade students of SDN Sidomukti. The teaching technique will be described from the way of learning process.
1.6 Definition of the Key Terms
The definitions are intended to avoid the ambiguity in understanding or percepting of some terms used in this study. They are meant to avoid misinterpretation. The definitions are as follows:
Vocabulary is the stock of words used in language or a group of people or an individual (Webster, 1956: 106). It is stock of word or list words (John M. Echols & Hassan Shadily dictionary 1975:63). It is said as a list of word, usually in alphabetical order and with explanations of their meaning, less complete than a dictionary (Longman dictionary of contemporary English, Paul Procter 1982, 1229)
Reading is process of meaning elaboration or thinking in relation to written symbols (Olson and Dinner, 1976:5)
- Reading comprehension
The activity or ability to understand speech from printed language that related one reads ( Hornby, A.S. 2000 Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Oxford University Press ).
- Reading passage
Reading passage is short section from book and an act of reading something. Hornby. A.S. 2000. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, Oxford University.
REVIEW RELATED LITERATURE
In this chapter, the writer would like to discuss about vocabulary, the importance of vocabulary, types of vocabulary, vocabulary for elementary school, teaching vocabulary, the technique of teaching vocabulary and reading, the importance of reading, the correlation between reading and vocabulary and characteristic
Vocabulary is the most important component of language power in using the language. Student who are rich in vocabulary will be successful both in expression skill: speaking and writing, and receptive skill : reading and listening, but those who are poor in vocabulary will get trouble in those skills, (Deighton, 1997 : 61).While for the readers, understanding word is important, although it does no mean that the reader will grasp the full linguistic meaning of sentence. Rohim (1994) said in the sentence meaning depends not only upon the meaning of individual word, but also upon the relationship between each word in a sentence and how these words are arranged to have a definite meaning. But, the sometime the readers or student can bored, although your learners are interested. In subject matter of reading text you have choosen, this is influence if they find the vocabulary too difficult or if the majority of word are unknown student, so that the teaches must to change and choose another text that more appropriate to their level.
2.2. The Importance of Vocabulary
In any language learning process especially in learning English as s foreign language, vocabulary is the most important factor, which should be mastered by students. Students who lack vocabulary will find difficulties in the language learning process and has little change to be successful developing the language skills . (Harry B Franklin, Herbit G. Meikle, Jens E. Strain) states that one of the aim of vocabulary is to provide of few situation in which the structural point learned in other parts of the course occur. With maximize vocabulary we can easy to understand a text that we read and comprehension. So, to help the student understand, it mean teacher must to motivate with give exercise into form sentences and interested text that more appropriate into form sentences and interested text that more appropriate their level. Meanwhile, Myers (1993) states that the reason a large vocabulary is important in that it is symplomatic of wide knowledge and their ability to more accurate distinction.
2,3. Types of Vocabulary
Word of language is divided into two groups. They are content word and function words (Dee Gregory, 1971). Content words are words that have lexical or dictionary meaning, for example : the words “chair”, “table”, “pencil” and etc. The meaning of content words can be described by giving the definition, synonym, antonym, and contextual explanation. However, functional words are words that the relationship between words and to make sentences or grammatical correct. Yet, it is difficult to judge whether a word has comment or function meaning, for example :
- Please, open the can. (“can” is a content word)
- You can go home now. (“can” is a functional word)
2.4. Vocabulary for Elementary School
Based on level of difficult, Staindback (1980) divides vocabulary into these levels. They are elementary, intermediate, and advanced vocabulary. Elementary
vocabulary is words that are easy to learn. It usually consists of simple words, like :
person, animals or things in the classroom. Words like : mother, door, rules, etc are easy because the meaning of the words can easily be made by seeing and touching them. It is very important to get success in language learning as they can strengthen students memorization of vocabulary being taught. Repeating the words after teacher mentioned them involves sense of hearing and when students and teacher are able to touch the things together, it involves sense of touch.
While ,Intermediate vocabulary is vocabulary of normal difficulty. It is best to teach intermediate vocabulary in contextual areas such as clothing, shopping, food, human body, etc. In addition , Advanced vocabulary in these level students will learn new vocabularies that are more difficult than before. And English dictionary become very important in this case. Habitually the students to consults the dictionary and to practice the word in communication will give more advantages to get a good pronunciation and clean meaning, also lo make the words stay longer in mind if it is always practiced.
2.5. Teaching Vocabulary
Teaching vocabulary of foreign language is not an easy, duty for the teacher. Vocabulary teaching is a very important step. Even as we focus on the mastery of language skills and grammar, adequate attention must be paid to the mastery of words
in English. Teaching vocabulary is a way to allow students to infer meaning of word as it is meant in context since that one word familiar to him or her, but she finds the meaning is strange in the present context. As Kustaryo (1988 : 23) says that “Words should be learned in context because often a word has different meaning in different context. In fact, words in isolation frequently do not suggest the intended meaning. Words have different meaning depending on context they also change meaning in different context.”
In Indonesia all materials of each subject being taught, the authorities have determined including English. However, it doesn’t mean that teachers’ duty is just presenting all the items in the prescribed text books without paying to the teaching objectives. The teacher should be able to make the students learning. However, as a good facilitator and coordinator, the teacher should be able to make the students learning process easy. The teacher should enrich his knowledge about the ways or technique how to teach vocabulary.
2.6. The Technique of Teaching Vocabulary
One who has less vocabulary will soon get bored and distressed in facing problems while doing the learning activities. In order to achieve a large vocabulary, the teacher has to be able to get strategies that |enable the students to acquire new vocabulary independently through reading. Bowen et all (1985) present some ways of teaching vocabulary :
- Glossories and Dictionaries
- Use of the corpus data
- Use of the thesaurus
- The idea of a vocabulary note book
List the interesting words in a note book where it will be convenient to review them from time to time
- Learning the synonym and the nuances that distinguish the synonyms
- Interpretation of words those are very similar in appearance.
While Celce – Murcia (1928; 247 – 248) point out the general technique of presenting new vocabulary. They are :
a. Lead In
In this step, it is better for teacher establishes a context to teach the words that can
be done by asking question or making simple statement, showing pictures or
object that are available the classroom.
b. Convey Meaning
Teacher conveys the meaning of words through definition, demonstration, visual
aid, synonym, antonym, translation, picture, mime.
c. Repetition of the word d. Verification
Teacher asks the students some open end question by which the answer can be
varied and it should explore the of words in context allow the students to practice
it. Asking the students to make simple sentences also can do it
e. Modal sentence
The teacher can do both write the word on the blackboard or dictate to the
The Teacher should be a good facilitators and coordinators, so they should enrich their knowledge about the ways or techniques how to teach vocabulary. Lado (1964 : 120 – 125) Presents the following items. They are:
a. Hearing the words
The students should be given a chance to hear word in isolation. Two or
three repetitions can be given in order that they hear the correct pronunciation
b. Pronouncing the words
The students should be given a chance to pronounce the word since it will
help them remember the word longer and identity it more readily when they hear
and see it.
c. Grasping the meaning
The teacher should help the students get the meaning of (lie word without using translation. There are numbers of ways to put across the meaning of a new word to class. They are :
- Self-defining context
Related this discussion, the writer will try to combine the suggested ways by Lado – and Celce – Murcia to support the technique of using reading passages in teaching vocabulary.
There are some definitions of readings According to Good man (1973), a psycholinguistic, reading is information processing. It shows list that reading can be defined as a process of getting information and also a process to understand who has expressed by the writer. Success in comprehension, according to another study by good man as quoted by Olson and Dilner (1976 : 4) is based on the extent to which the reader’s reconstructed message agrees with the writer’s intended message. Thus, reading is not information processing but rather information interpreting what the reader understand from the text depends on parts of what they knew before as well as how they but let text on the way to extent and refine their knowledge of topic.
From some definitions above, it can be said that reading is a process of interaction between the reader and the writer’s idea in the text in which the ability to understand is very important. The ability to interpret the text is influenced by some one’s ability to comprehend. However, comprehension ability is the main factor to get successful reading.
2.8. The Importance of Reading
Reading competence is very important in our complex daily life. We always apply this skill everyday in order to get much information, so that we can keep our mind on the events that occur around the worlds. Reading skill is the first skill that should be mastered by students instead of the either three skills speaking, listening, and writing. It is obvious that reading is very important. It will help students to deal with his life, for general knowledge depend on it that is way, reading is the most
The most important assignment of the elementary school is to teach students to read. Its means that the students are able to use reading in their learning and for their enjoyment. One of the most difficult tasks for the teachers are to foster a positive attitude towards reading. Teachers are often unable to motivate students to get entertainment and information in reading materials. Motivating students to read can be done by giving interesting materials in order that students are interested in reading passage. In this case , teachers must prepare to read the passages by giving them an interesting material. Reading materials students expected to read in form of the passages given in interesting materials. Reading materials students expected to read must be increased in amount and in difficulty.
2.9. The Correlation Between Reading and Vocabulary
Vocabulary and reading are two things closely related to each other. One cannot comprehend a reading passage.well if he does not know or understand since
vocabulary which is the basic element to build a reading passage . Weiner (1987 : 7)
states that reading and vocabulary are deeply connected. Reading and vocabulary are two things. Which are difficult to be separated because they influence each other. Students who have good mastery of vocabulary will be easier to understand reading materials. On the contrary, students who are poor of vocabulary will get some difficulties in understanding reading material. Studies have shown that the size of a student’s vocabulary is one of the best indicatory of his ability to read comprehensively. In other hand, vocabulary would improve, reading comprehension it means that if the students have a lot of vocabularies, they will easily to understand and comprehend the task. So vocabulary is an important and basic thing in reading comprehension.
2.10.Characteristic of Children
There are three psychological characteristics of children at the age of 9 – 12
byFitus (1986) and Manoviaty (1990 : 10). They are : social, emotional, and mental
1. Social characteristic
Children at the age of 9 -12 arc still pure. They want everything good perfect
without making any mistakes. They always want what their friend have.
2. Emotional Characteristic
Children at their age are not feel shy. They are spontaneously, for example,,
when children pronounce the words, they do not pay attention at the wrong
pronunciation but they skill improve it by imitating to pronounce the English
words gradually which makes the words stay along in their mind.
3. Mental characteristic
Children do not have arguments to refuse their parents support. Although children
want to be independents, they still need adult’s guidance.
Based on these characteristic above, the teachers have, to know how to teach vocabulary at the age. Children at the age 9-12 not feel shy and like to imitate what the teachers pronounce the words. So the teachers should give the correct pronounce the students. The teachers also have guide the ; students to pronounce the words correctly.
Goodman. 1973. Reading and Psycholinguistic : The 1970. Forum, 4(XXV) : 30
Hornby, A.S. 2000. Oxfort Advaned Learner’s Dictionary. Oxford : university press.
Lado. Robert. 1964. Language Teaching. New York. MC Graw Hill, Inc.
Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, paul procter. 1982. 1229
Murcia. Celce. 1928. Teaching english as a second or foreign language. United States of America.
Olson. J. and Dinner, H.M. 1976. Learning To Teach English in Elementary School. New York : MC Milan-Publishing Co. Inc
Webster. Dictionary of Contemporary English. (1959 : 106).
THE ASSIGNMENT OF FINAL EXAM OF WRITING V
A Study on Teaching English by Using Pictures and Guessing Game to Increase
The Students’ Vocabulary for the Third Grade of MI Ma’arif Pambon
Language is an important communication instrument. We know that without language people cannot communicate with other. Without language the world will not be meaningful. It is realized that English is one of the important languages in this world. It is also international language use in the entire world. Therefore, English is the only available tool for the twentieth century learning (Broughton, 1973:3). It also becomes a mean of communication among people in the world. In our country English is also one of the foreign languages that we must have the capability. So, it is very important for us to learn English as well as possible.
The writer hopes the students can be motivated in teaching and learning English, therefore the writer is quite interested in A Study on Teaching English by Using Pictures and Guessing Games to Increase Students’ Vocabulary for the Third Grade of Mi Ma’arif Al Aminah Pambon Brondong Lamongan.
The purpose from this research is the writer wants to know and identify teaching English by using pictures and guessing game increase students’ vocabulary for the third grade of MI Ma’arif Al Aminah Pambon and also to know the significance difference of the students’ vocabulary between before and after being taught by using pictures and guessing game. And the subject of the study is the third gradeof students MI Ma’arif Al aminah Pambon. The data collection is done by observation, interview, questionnaire, and collecting the data of the vocabulary achievement by using pre test and post test
Based on the analysis, the researcher finds that mean of the post test in the class is higher than pre test. The mean of pre test is 57.16 and the mean of post test is 75.48. By using t test, based on significance 0.1% and degree of freedom (db) n – 1 = 31 – 1 = 30, the t table shows 3.646 and the t value is 10.64 so, the t value is higher than t table. The data shows that t value is 10.64 so, 10.64 > 3.646 it means that there is significant difference between pre test and post value.
It can be concluded that there is significance difference in students’ vocabulary achievement between before and after being taught by using pictures and guessing games. The data interpretation also shows that there is increasing significance in students’ vocabulary achievement. So, the result is teaching English by using pictures and guessing game influences the students’ vocabulary achievement.
1.1. Background of the Study
Language is an important communication instrument. We know that without language people cannot communicate with other. Without language the world will not be meaningful.
It is realized that English is one of the important languages in this world. It is also international language use in the entire world. Therefore, English is the only available tool for the twentieth century learning (Broughton, 1973:3). It also becomes a mean of communication among people in the world. In our country English is also one of the foreign languages that we must have the capability. So, it is very important for us to learn English as well as possible.
In reality, English is very close to us. We need it for our future, at school, looking for a job, etc. So, English is given early to students beginning from in elementary school. The purpose is that they can speak English well, in writing and reading, listening, and speaking. So English must be given early to the students because, children can accept something new faster. The writer hopes the students can improve their ability, especially in English skill with fun in the class but also surely helps them in learning.
It is known that the difficulty of the students is because of the lack of vocabulary and the effect is that they can’t speak English well. So they need something that can back them up to increase their motivation to study and increase their vocabulary. A good books that contain pictures, games, picture or other things can help them to increase their English ability with something fun but educative.
We know that in this chance they only learn about vocabulary and how to pronoun well the English words to increase their ability in speaking, writing, and reading. So the student must have much vocabulary to back it up. But many students or beginners feel that finds and memorize new vocabulary is very difficult. It usually happens to the students who have no chance to practice it orally. They only find, memorize and then forget them by the time. This situation can make them feel bored if the teacher has no creativity to keep students motivation. The activities of teacher are the main key to success or not in learning and teaching activities to increase student ability especially in English lesson.
In learning English, a teacher should motivate the students by giving them spirit and care enough to them. The teacher gives more explanation and makes the students feel comfortable in the class. So the students can receive the lesson and not feel like in final exam that they are very scared. And the effect is that they can increase their ability in English skill and increase their vocabulary as well as they can.
As we know in this age, the students still need something fresh, fun but seriously to keep their spirit and motivation to learn English. So as the teacher we must have something interesting for our students. Something that isn’t necessarily new but can help us to bring all students to be better.
There are many ways to increase students’ vocabulary. One of them is using pictures and guessing games. Picture and guessing games can be used in teaching and learning activity in order to make the students interested and enjoy learning English so that they will feel comfortable to join our class and can make them more active.
According to Gita Nilla Kreshna (2007) in her skripsi “the study of teaching vocabulary by using games in academy Year 2006/2007. The finding showed that teaching English by using games for the students is very effective.
In elementary school, English is one of the subjects tested at the final exam (UAS). But many students and parents still have a little understanding about this problem. On their mind, English isn’t their language and they don’t need it any more. So they are lazy and don’t care all about English. And the effect is education quality in Indonesia is still low.
So to build students’ understanding and ability in English, the writer is trying to use some techniques to increase their vocabulary by using pictures and guessing games in teaching to motivate the students in learning activity, especially increasing their vocabulary because picture and game are close and familiar to students. It can make them enjoyable in the class. Pictures also can make the students feel curious and the effect is that they can be active in class.
According to Ambar Winarsih in her skripsi (2007) teaching English by using picture is effective for the students to increase their vocabulary.
Furthermore, the writer hopes the students can be motivated in teaching and learning English, therefore the writer is quite interested in A STUDY ON TEACHING ENGLISH BY USING PICTURES AND GUESSING GAMES TO INCREASE STUDENTS’ VOCABULARY FOR THE THIRD GRADE OF MI MA’ARIF AL AMINAH PAMBON BRONDONG LAMONGAN.
1.2.Statement of the Problems
Based on the background of the research above, the writer‘s research problem can be formulated in the following question:
1. How far does teaching English by using pictures and guessing game increase students’ vocabulary for the third grade?
2. Why can teaching English by using pictures and guessing games help students to increase their vocabulary?
1.3. Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is:
1. To find out how far “teaching English by using pictures and guessing game increases the students’ vocabulary of the third grade”.
2. To find out the reason of “why teaching English by using picture and
guessing game help the students to increase their vocabulary”.
Teaching English by using pictures and guessing games can increase the students’ vocabulary for the third grade of MI MA’ARIF AL AMINAH Pambon.
1.5. Limitation of the Study
The study is analyzing the effectiveness of teaching English by using pictures and guessing games. It is also focused to increase of the students’ vocabulary in teaching English at the “third grade of MI MA’ARIF AL-AMINAH Pambon Brondong Lamongan”.
1.6. Significance of the Study
The results of this study are expected to be able to give many contributions on special information, generally for the teacher and the students of English department. Those are as follows:
1. The teacher
- The result of this study can be used by teachers of English to be able to get useful Information of teaching English.
- The result of the study will help the teacher to know how far he is successful to keep and increase his students’ vocabulary in learning English.
2. The students
- The result of this study will give the students an alternative way how to increase vocabulary by enjoy seeing the pictures and enjoy the games.
Definition of the Key Term
To clarify the terms used in this study for the readers, the writer gives their definition as follow:
1. Teaching is the act of providing, situation, conditions, or activities designed and to learning activities (Benjamin, Harold, 1959: 552).
2. Using means doing something with a machine, a method and object etc. (Horn by A. 5.2000:1432).
3. Pictures means a painting or drawing to describe of presentation (Longman dictionary Of contemporary English, 1987: 631)
4. Guessing Games is a game in which the object is used to guess some kind of information, Such as: a word, a phrase, a title, or the location of object. (Rob Lewis on June, 2009)
5. Increase means make degree greater, bigger or upper
6. Vocabulary is the words or phrases, which label part of material to be learned and which are necessary for students to it in speaking and writing (Marry M. Dubois, 1982:153)
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this part the writer tries to more understand about young learners and what are the young learners want in teaching learning process so that they can feel comfortable to join and active in English class by studying their characteristic. So the writers can choose some ways that suitable for them. And the technique will be taken from some literatures, which related to the investigation, they are explained as follows:
2.1. Characteristics of the Children
Teaching English in elementary school is different from that at higher level, because young learners have specific characteristic. The specific characteristic as stated by Halliwel in Azziah (1996: 15) as follows:
“Children have a good ability in interpreting meaning without necessary understanding the meaning of individual words”. They can guess the meaning of unknown words or phrases by usage of intonation, gesture and facial expression.
“Children are very creative in using limited language resource”. In their first language learning, they like to make sentence by their limited vocabulary. They like to repeat certain words, which are not familiar to them and try to include it in their sentence.
“Children have strong sense of play and fun”. The usage of games, song and physical activities will help them a lot of in learning a new language.
“Children have great imagination”. Children are delighted in imagination and fantasy. Language teaching should be concerned with the real life.
“Children are better mimics”. They are good imitators. They can imitate the pronunciation of foreign language more easily. Moreover, they like to play with the sounds.
“Young learners get bored easily”. It is obviously seen that young learners always demand various conditions. Unlike adult learners who may change their motivation toward uninteresting or dull conditions. Young learners have no choice but it attends the classroom and has a little thing to say in classroom activities. As a result, they get bored of the situation and moreover, they try to let teacher know that they are bored.
“Young learners forget quickly”. Due to this nature, therefore, the teacher needs to teach young learners in a more interesting way. It should be done in such a way that young learners do not get bored.
From the quotation above, it can be concluded that characteristic of the children can influence their learning English. The characteristic of young learners are different from adults, children forget quickly, get bored easily, children are better mimics and so on.
D.A Wilkins (1974: 31) stated the most obvious difference between younger and older learners in actual language performance will occur in the relative mastery of the pronunciation. Many adults who otherwise acquire an excellent command of language never overcome the difficulties posed by new sound
system. In the other hand, older learners can call upon learning abilities which have not yet been developed in small children. Older learners are therefore able to
exploit a wider range of learning strategies than younger learners. So the actual achievement can be well a head of that child.
Therefore the teacher should make effort to help the students so that they can save their motivation to join and in English class in this level, not only we give them a sense of security, success, and achievement, but also we give them variation method of presentation and in teacher’s instructional materials. The teacher should be more creative to make the students interesting in learning English.
2.2. Definition of vocabulary
Vocabulary is a list or collection of words or words and phrases usually alphabetically arranged and explained or defined. (www.Meriam-webster.com/dictionaryvocabulary)
There are many new words that students have to understand, memorize, and master. It’s because of vocabulary related in writing, reading, listening, and speaking. So the students have to find and get as much as they can to back them up in learning English. So that they can practice by them selves by speaking or writing etc. to keep their vocabulary don’t lose after the class finish.
Several worksheet and interview have been conducted to find out the result of teaching English especially teaching vocabulary. The aim stated in the curriculum for the elementary school is acquiring 500 words with the emphasis on speaking ability. Some quotations below show that teaching and learning English is not successful. Sabroni Rachadie concludes:
“Vocabulary building is important in any foreign language learning because it has close correlation with the intellectual of learners but also the that it help a great deal in the improvement four language skill of students” ( 1975: 17 ).
Macaulay (in Wardhono, 2005 :21) claims that vocabulary is a list or collection of words arrange in alphabetical order of whole language, a single work or author, a branch of science, or the like; a words book.
Hornsby ( 1995 : 978 ) defines vocabulary as the total number of words in a language which an individual know and those words are used as vehicle of the language express one though.
In his statement is still the significant element of any language learning, master the language as any level, such from elementary level, a small number of vocabularies may help some one understand and be understood though probably she has not learned the grammar yet. And for learning English, vocabulary skill, plays important role in improving her language skill.
2.3. Building Vocabulary
Vocabulary building is a complex process by using many kinds of words to learn. With vocabulary the students can improve their ability by practice more and more in order to they have ability for their future.
According to Bum and Roe (1998: 41), there are some ways that can help the students in building vocabulary, such as:
Synonym is words that have the same or very similar meaning. It can help the students to expand their vocabulary.
Example: Bill is sad he just lost his dog.
Mean => sad = unhappy
Antonym is word that has meaning opposite from each other.
Example: Tony is a slow learner
The opposite is fast
Homonym is words which are spelled differently but pronounced like the same.
Example: She has two books
I like this sweater too
She goes to Surabaya
2.4. Importance of Vocabulary
In foreign language, teaching vocabulary has important function in mastering English as tool of communication. Sometimes the pupils want to say something in English but they don’t know much appropriately how to say it. This is caused by the lack of vocabulary. As we know that vocabulary is very important in language learning, because if someone learn vocabulary, he deals with the vocabulary. The linguist David Wilkins stated that without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed (Thorn Burry, 2002: 1).
A pupil who luck vocabulary will find difficulties in the learning English process and have little chance to be successful in developing the language skills. In other word, vocabulary is a key to be successful in increasing the language skills.
2.5. Definition of Teaching
Teaching is the only major occupation of man for which we have not yet developed tools that make an average person capable of competence and performance (http://www.Brainyquote.com/words/te/teaching/oscarwilde)
From definition above the writer try to make a point from those statements that teaching is an activity that can help children better and help them build some condition that can make them enjoy the teaching and learning process.
2.6. Teaching English to the Children in Elementary School
In Indonesia English is still strange for a half people in this country. They still think that it’s not necessary in their life. So they never give more attention to it. Many people in this country also think that English is so difficult lesson. And for children English is a new language and also difficult to learn and understand too. It happen because they still don’t know yet more about English and this condition is broke by their parent that doesn’t have a little ability or enough education background. As we know our education is still low than other country, it’s caused by low economic, low understanding about how important education for future etc. So the teacher must give something that can make the student feel enjoy and more interested in learning English. So the students can improve their ability especially in learning English.
Teaching English for children is not difficult but is not easy either. We must have a way that it can help students to solve their problem. Such as methods that can make the students feel enjoy join in English class and can give them ability.
2.7. Definition of Pictures
Picture is means a painting or drawing to describe of presentation (Longman dictionary contemporary, 1987:631). Pictures are also as visual aids that can help the student to increase their vocabulary easier. The student not only knows the words but also they can see the description of the word. It can make the students more interested to join and learn in English class. So, they will be more active in the class.
Picture also can help the students to get more spirit to memorize a new word. They not only know the words but they also can see the description of those words. As we know the students usually don’t know yet the form or the describe from some words such as bum bag or funny pack = “a small bag” or cradle = “a swing for baby’s sleep place”. So we can give them the describe from those words by picture. The students will more interesting in picture so that they will get spirit and motivation to read more and more and the effect is that they will memorize easily and enjoy the pictures.
As we know picture is one of the visual aid that is more interesting by young learners. Picture is a visual representation or image painted, drawn, photographed, or otherwise rendered on a flat surface (www.freedictionary.com). So picture is very important in increasing students’ ability especially in vocabulary mastery. It also to answer why can teaching English by using pictures help the students to increase their vocabulary, because picture is something or a visual aids that is very close to students world. So it can help them to increase their vocabulary and enjoy the class in teaching and learning process.
2.8.Kind of Pictures
As we know there are many kinds of picture we can use in teaching English as visual aids. They are picture series, Composite picture, and individual picture / flash cards. We can use it in teaching learning as visual aids and the students can see directly the form of the words. In order to, the student don’t feel bored and they can know directly what the teacher means. Pictures can also be one of the things which is familiar and closed with children. So it can help them in learning English with something that very interesting.
2.8.1 Pictures Series
Picture series is a number of pictures on related composite picture or sequence
(Nur azliana, 1987:51)
2.8.2 Composite Picture
Composite picture is a picture of situation in which a person is doing something
(Nur azliana, 1987:49)
2.8.3 Individual Picture
Individual picture is a single picture on object. (Nur azliana, 1987:51)
But we needn’t use the only those kinds of picture but we also can make an improvisation in using pictures, such as in color we can use pictures “stars” and we give it color. Or we can use pictures by using photo or picture from magazine or news paper or we can make it by ourselves.
Blue purple one two
2.9. Procedure of Teaching English by Using Pictures
2.9.1. Introducing subjective pronoun
The teachers introduce the kinds of subjective pronouns to the students. So the student gets easy to understand the different meaning and use it in the sentence. The teacher explain it clearly and read it in slowly and clearly voice. Students repeated.
The teacher give a new word to the student and explain it clearly, tell them how to say the words in slowly voice and give them an example in simple sentence so that the students not only get and know a new vocabulary but also can speak in right pronunciation. The students repeat it.
18.104.22.168. Kinds of pronoun:
The teachers give the students vocabulary starting from kinds of pronoun (I, you, we, they, and she, he, it) and make an example by using words (vocabulary) in sentence.
Teacher : I (ai) it means “saya”
Students : (repeated) I (ai) = “saya”
In sentence: I go to school
saya pergi sekolah
Teacher : you (yu:) it means “kamu”
Students : you (yu:) =”kamu”
In sentence: you are a student.
Kamu adalah seorang murid / pelajar etc.
22.214.171.124. Introducing to be (is, am, are) and Do/Does.
The teachers introduce kind of to be to the students. It is also very important because using “to be” is something new and difficult for the students that they don’t know yet about how to use it in a sentence and speaking. We can introduce them starting from using “to be” in nominal sentence first then we give them in verbal sentence.
I => am => I’m => saya
You you are do (do I, do you, do we, do they).
We are => we are
They they are
She she is
He is => he is does (does she, does he, does it ).
it it is
Ø For Do and Does, it’s used only in interrogative and Negative sentence and it’s not kinds of “to be”.
Ø The Function of Do and Does :
a. as “ Auxiliary Verb”
- Do they speak English?
b. as “Ordinary Verb”
- Do they do their homework?
c. as “emphasizes”
- I do love you = I love you very much
126.96.36.199. Is, am, are in Nominal Sentence
Ø pattern : ( + ) : s + is/am/are + complement
( - ) : s + is/am/are + not + complement
|( ? ) : Is/am/are + s + complement?
Shy ( )
Thirsty ( )
I am I am can be shorted I’m
Affirmative : I am ready
Negative : I am not ready
Interrogative : am I ready?
Hungry ( )
Affirmative : He is diligent in his class => Dia (lk) pandai di kelasnya.
Negative : He is not diligent in his class.
Interrogative : Is he diligent in his class?
Affirmative : we are students.
Negative : we are not students
Interrogative : are we students?
In the pattern of nominal sentence there is “complement”; complement is non verb (adjective, adverb, and noun).
188.8.131.52. is, am, are in Verbal Sentence ( presents continuous tense)
Ø pattern : ( + ) : s + is/am/are + verb(ing) + o
( – ) : s + is/am/are + not + verb(ing) + o
( ? ) : Is/am/are + verb(ing) + s + o?
on the grass
Affirmative : I am wearing a red dress.
Negative : I am not wearing a red dress.
Interrogative : Am I wearing a red dress?
Affirmative : We are reading a book
Negative : We are not reading a book
Interrogative : Are we reading a book?
Ø To be is, am, are, is used in:
4. Object pronoun
Ø Is, am, are has mean “adalah” , “sedang” (in progress) or “no meaning” (tidak di artikan sama sekali)
(adalah) : she is a singer
(sedang) : he is reading a book
(No meaning) : I am shy
Ø Presents continuous tense is an activity that’s doing by some one.
The changes of verbs:
184.108.40.206. Giving and Memorizing Vocabulary
The teacher gives the students vocabulary and explains how to say in right pronunciation. Then the students repeat it. Then the students study and memorize it at home.
- Kind of words
I , you
220.127.116.11. Do / Does (simple present)
Ø pattern : ( + ) : s + verb1 + s/es + o
( – ) : s + do/does + verb1 + o
( ? ) : Do/does + s + verb1 + o?
she speaks= “s” from does
Affirmative : She speaks English.
Negative : She does not / doesn’t speak English.
Interrogative: Does she speak English?
Affirmative : I speak English
Negative : I don’t speak English. .
Interrogative: Do I speak English?
Do / Does as to be is used only in verb.
e.g.: 1. Do you tired? X
Are you tired? √
(!) : Tired is not verb but adjective
2. Do you go to school every day?
(!) : go is verb1 so we may using do
Concept to understand verbal and nominal sentences.
|Kalimat yang predikatnya kata kerja e.g.:
(bila diterjemahkan dalam b.inggris tidak selalu pakai “ to be “)
|Kalimat yang predikatnya selain kata kerja e.g.:
Dalam b.inggris selalu memakai “ to be “ )
|Kalimat yang verb utamanya selain tobe e.g.:
*you are crying
Kinds of verb:
V-1,V-2,V-3,V-ing, V (es/s).
|Kalimat yang verb utamanya selalu to be e.g.:
*You are happy
*you will be happy
Kinds of to be:
Is, am, are, was, were, be, been, being.
Adopted from Grammar 1.
2.9.2. Giving New Vocabulary
The teacher gives new word and backs it up by using a picture as visual aids and explains how to say in right pronunciation. So the students can easy to understand what the meanings of those words are by seeing the picture. Picture also can make the students more interested in reading and studying the vocabulary. And the effect is that the students will be motivated to memorize it and they can increase their vocabulary.
(Red) Green Black white
2.9.3. Words in Group by Using Picture
The teacher gives the students new words and they are grouped such as vegetables, man profession etc. and it is helped by picture. The teacher reads the words slowly and clearly then students repeat it. The teacher may make a simple and interesting title, such as when we are teaching about date and month. We can use title “Happy Birthday”, it also can make students feel interesting to study in the class. Then the teacher makes an example in sentence and then the teacher ask one of the students to make one example in sentence also (oral). After that the students must memorize it at home.
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2.10. Definition of games
A game is an activity providing entertainment or amusement with a rule based on formal system with variable and quantifiable outcome, where different outcomes are assigned different values, the players exerts effort in order to influence the outcomes, the player feels attached to the outcome, and the consequences of the activity are optional and negotiable.(Avedon, E.M & Sutton-Smith, Brian: The Study of Games. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1981)
A game is a structured activity, usually undertaken for enjoyment and sometimes used as an educational tool. (www.wikipedia.org/wiki/gane).
Games are distinct from work, which is usually carried out for remuneration, and from art, which is more concerned with the expression of ideas.(www.wikipedia.org/wiki/game)
Games are vital part of a teacher’s equipment, not only for language practice they provide, but also for the therapeutic effect they have. They can be used of any stage of class to provide an amusing and challenging the students to more active in the class with fun activity in the class so they can respite from other class activity that sometimes make them feel bored and lazy to study, and are specially useful at the end of a long day to send the students away feeling cheerful about their English class.
Games are often wrongly regarded as an end of term activity, something to fill in the last five minutes of lesson. In that fact they can be used at all stages of practice from controlled to free.
The best result can be felt and obtained from guessing games, which get high imagination. In spite of the games is more difficult than other, but student appear enthusiasm and study hard to be able to try understanding and guessing what they can do and carry out.
2.11. Purpose of using game
The main purpose of using techniques and method of teaching are to make the studying successful and by using game, the pupils will be able to understand everything the teacher has though to them. Games are used for teaching English because they have some priorities:
1. Game can make the situation of teaching learning process become relax and fun for the students.
2. Games can make more a live in action learning of English lesson, the students can practice about the material of the teacher has given.
3. Game is a consolation that changes the bad condition / situation for the students that had bad mood in English lesson.
After knowing some priorities of games, the writers want to present the main purpose of using games. It can improve the progress in learning English for students in order to:
1. Have more motivation to study hard, because they know directly what the teacher means and more attention cones of their configuring.
2. Understand what the teacher gives in lesson because the teacher gives real action by using games and it can be clearly.
3. be more interested in the class and not bored because they have to attend what the teacher presents by reality.
2.12. Advantages and Disadvantages of games
2.12.1. The Advantages
As the writer told above , that the advantages of using games in commonly that the pupils are easier to receive the lesson because they can enjoy studying. The pupils have fun in studying they are not bored, they can understand what the object means, what the action means by using some game that is played by the students.
Games are a vital part of the teacher’s equipment, not only for the languages practices they provide, but also for therapeutic affects that can make the students feel relax and not bored in teaching learning process. They can be
used at any stage activity, and especially useful at the end of along day to send the students a way feeling cheerful about their English class.
Games also have disadvantages, but there is comparison between advantages and disadvantages of games have many good effect and good result. The disadvantages of using games as writer analyzes such as:
1. For the Teacher
The teachers have to be more active to think to make the tools about games. And the effect is the teacher’s time is less; because the time is spent by thinking about how to make a new creativity (even doesn’t happen for all teachers).
2. For the Students
The students will be more interested in games and always need it in every teaching and learning. And usually they will be very crowded in the class and it can disturb other class if the teacher can not handle the class.
2.13. Definition of Guess (ing)
A situation which people have to guess what is going to happen. People usually use this expression when they think the situation is annoying. (Avedon, E.M & Sutton-Smith, Brian: The Study of Games. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1981.
From statement above the writer gets the point that games or guessing games can make the students not feel bored in the class. Games also can cheer them up and build their spirit to study English. It also to answer why can teach English by using games or guessing games increase the students’ vocabulary in teaching and learning process. Because games can helps the students build their spirit to join in English class and make them not feel bored. So they can receive the lesson as well as possible and have more attention and motivation joins in the class.
2.14. Kind of Guessing Games
2.14.1. Guessing the Picture (Guess What)
The students see the picture and they must guess the word/vocabulary.
What is 4 (empat) in English?
2.14.2. Guessing the Hidden Alphabet
The teacher gives the student a word and one of the alphabets is hidden and the student must guess the word. E.g.: Carrot – Ca..r..t
2.14.3. Guessing the Word by the Alphabet
The teacher gives one word starting from a word that the alphabet is from “ a” and the students guess the other word/vocabulary and continue the other word starting from the alphabet after “a”
E.g.: The teacher said “A “for Apple and the student will continue “B” for Bird etc.
The teacher give the duty to the students to answer the puzzle and arrange it as the clue that given by the teacher.
- Apel in English
- Sebuah Bolpoin
- An animal that has long ears and eats carrot.
2.15. Procedure of Using Guessing Games
2.15.1. Guessing the Pictures (Guess What)
The teacher gives and shows the pictures to the students and the students guess what the meaning of it. The purpose is to know how far the students can receive our explanation and how much they can memorize and remember the words that they got. .
Ø Guess what!
Teacher: What is the color of that moon?
Students: The color of the moon is yellow.
Teacher: How to spell it?
Students: wai-i-el-el-ou-doble yu.
Teacher: what it is?
Students: it is sun
Teacher: what is the color of the sun?
Students: the color of the sun is brown. etc.
Teachers: What is “saya” in English?
Teachers: Ok, that’s correct answer.
Teachers: What is “dia laki-laki” in English?
Teacher: Ok, that’s correct answers.
15.1.2. Guessing Hidden Alphabet
The teacher gives some clues to the students in one letter or says in categories e.g. “Vegetable”, “fruit” or “Family” then the student try to answers and guess the hidden letter.
Ø Our Family.
1. F_ t _ _ r
2. B- – t – - r
3. S- – - - r
Ø Fruit and flower
1. s_ r _ _ b _ _r _
2. R _ _ e
Ø Environmental Class
Complete the words and match them with the picture!
$ C – l- – - – r
P – n
& b – - k ¥
(Adopted from Grow with English for 3 grade of elementary school).
- An animal that can fly and singing in the morning
- The name of color
- the English of “cara penggunaan”
SHINTA SEPTIA A(1106080208)2008C“Applying picture describing to increase speaking skill for REC (Ronggolawe English Club) members at Unirow Tuban”
In this chapter, the writer presents introduction which covers; background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, significance of the study, limitation of the study, definition of key the terms, organization of the study.
1.1 Background of the Study
English is an international language which is used by most people all over world taught and learnt in many countries. Crystal (1997) argued that English is an important language and it is spoken in many countries.
Learning English is not only learning about vocabulary and grammar but also to apply both of them in communication. If someone masters English only for vocabulary and grammar but he or she cannot use them for communication, we can say that is in vain.
Someone’s skill in communication can be seen in two ways. Those are oral skill and writing skill. In oral communication, there is an important element which is necessary to be taught. It is pronunciation. If someone pronounces incorrectly, he or she cannot express his or her idea correctly. In other words, if he or she is listening to someone’s speaking and he or she has some mistakes in his or her pronunciation, it also can influence his or her to understand what he or she heard.
In this skripsi, the writer tries to apply a method named “picture describing” to increase REC (Ronggolawe English Club) member’s speaking skill because he wants to make their skill develop, and hopefully if the research is done well, the “picture describing” method can be applied in REC (Ronggolawe English Club) and make the members become more active.
In Ngusman Ali (2005), state that the speaking ability of the subjects is good enough when using “Story Telling” method. That’s why, in this skripsi, the writer wants to apply another method named “picture describing” method to increase speaking skill for the twenty members of REC (Ronggolawe English Club).
So far, the writer knows that in REC (Ronggolawe English Club) only few members are active. It runs ineffectively because other members only become the audience. They come, sit, and hear others speak up
That’s why, in this skripsi, the writer takes a title “Applying picture describing to increase speaking skill for REC (Ronggolawe English Club) members at Unirow Tuban” to make inactive members become more brave to speak up.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
According to the background of the study, the writer has some problems which will be answered as follows:
1. How good is the ability of REC (Ronggolawe English Club) in speaking by using “picture describing” method?
2. Is there any different speaking ability of the members in the REC (Ronggolawe English Club) when using “picture describing” method and without using it?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
In this skipsi the writer has some purposes:
1. To know the REC (Ronggolawe English Club) members speaking skill by using “picture describing” method.
2. To help the coordinator of REC (Ronggolawe English Club) to run the class well and become more active.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The result of the study is expected to be useful input for the following groups:
- To the members: To increase/develop their speaking skill by using “picture describing” method.
- To the tutor : To find whether there is any significace differentspeaking ability when use “picture describing” method and without using it
1.5 Limitation of the Study
The study only focuses to the REC (Ronggolawe English Club) members to maximize the result of the study. The class should be attended at least 15 members.
It also only focuses on the application of the picture describing method for the twenty members.
1.6 Definition of the Key Terms
1. Picture: Painting, drawing, that shows a scene, a person or thing. (Oxford Advanced Learner’s pocket Dictionary new Edition: 322)
2 Describe: Say what something is like. (Oxford Advanced Learner’s pocket Dictionary new Edition: 116)
3. Increase: Become or make something greater. (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Pocket Dictionary new Edition: 218)
4. Speak : Be able to use a language orally. (Oxford Advanced Learner’s pocket Dictionary new Edition: 414)
5. Skill : Ability to do something well. (Oxford Advanced Learner’s pocket Dictionary new Edition: 402)
6. REC : The name of an English club. It stands for Ronggolawe English Club.
7. UNIROW: The name of the University where the research takes place
1.7 Organization of the Study
This skripsi is divided in to five chapters.
1.7.1 Chapter one, Introduction.
This chapter includes; background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, significance of the study, limitation of the study, definition of key terms, and organization of the study.
1.7.2 Chapter two, Review of Related Literature.
In this chapter, the writer presents study of speaking ability, the teaching and speaking, presenting speaking.
1.7.3 Chapter three, Research Methodology
This chapter covers research design, subject of the study, instrument of collecting data, procedure of collecting data, technique of collecting data.
1.7.4 Chapter four, result of the study
Chapter four is research of the study that consists of displaying data and analysis data.
1.7.5 Chapter five, Conclusion and Suggestion.
It includes conclusion and suggestion
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this chapter, the writer discusses about the theory of the teaching speaking, speaking ability, components of speaking ability, problems with speaking activities, picture in teaching English, teaching English using “picture describing” method.
2.1 Teaching Speaking
Speaking is “the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts” (Chaney, 1998: 13). Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching. Despite its importance, for many years, teaching speaking has been undervalued and English language teachers have continued to teach speaking just as a repetition of drills or memorization of dialogues.
However, today’s world requires that the goal of teaching speaking should improve students’ communicative skills, because, only in that way, students can express themselves and learn how to follow the social and cultural rules appropriate in each communicative circumstance. In order to teach second language learners how to speak in the best way possible, some speaking activities are provided below, that can be applied to learner and learner classroom settings, together with suggestions for teachers who teach oral language.
The goal of teaching speaking skills is communicative efficiency. Learners should be able to make themselves understood, using their current proficiency to the fullest. They should try to avoid confusion in the message due to faulty pronunciation, grammar, or vocabulary, and to observe the social and cultural rules that apply in each communication situation.
2.1.1 What is “Teaching Speaking”?
What is meant by “teaching speaking” is to teach learners to:
- Produce the English speech sounds and sound patterns
- Use word and sentence stress, intonation patterns and the rhythm of the second language.
- Select appropriate words and sentences according to the proper social setting, audience, situation and subject matter.
- Organize their thoughts in a meaningful and logical sequence.
- Use language as a means of expressing values and judgments.
- Use the language quickly and confidently with few unnatural pauses, which is called as fluency. (Nunan, 2003)
2.1.2 How to Teach Speaking
Now many linguistics and ESL teachers agree on that students learn to speak in the second language by “interacting”. Communicative language teaching and collaborative learning serve best for this aim. Communicative language teaching is based on real-life situations that require communication. By using this method in English classes, students will have the opportunity of communicating with each other in the target language. In brief, English teachers should create a classroom environment where students have real-life communication, authentic activities, and meaningful tasks that promote oral language. This can occur when students collaborate in groups to achieve a goal or to complete a task.
2.1.3 Activities to Promote Speaking
There are a lot of activities to promote speaking. It is used to make easier for the speaker to express the idea. Below are some of the activities:
After a content-based lesson, a discussion can be held for various reasons. The students may aim to arrive at a conclusion, share ideas about an event, or find solutions in their discussion groups. Before the discussion, it is essential that the purpose of the discussion activity is set by the teacher. In this way, the discussion points are relevant to this purpose, so that students do not spend their time chatting with each other about irrelevant things. For example, students can become involved in agree/disagree discussions.
In this type of discussions, the teacher can form groups of students, preferably 4 or 5 in each group, and provide controversial sentences like “people learn best when they read vs. people learn best when they travel”. Then each group works on their topic for a given time period, and presents their opinions to the lass. It is essential that the speaking should be equally divided among group members. At the end, the class decides on the winning group who defended the idea in the best way. This activity fosters critical thinking and quick decision making, and students learn how to express and justify themselves in polite ways while disagreeing with the others. For efficient group discussions, it is always better not to form large groups, because quiet students may avoid contributing in large groups.
The group members can be either assigned by the teacher or the students may determine it by themselves, but groups should be rearranged in every discussion activity so that students can work with various people and learn to be open to different ideas. Lastly, in class or group discussions, whatever the aim is, the students should always be encouraged to ask questions, paraphrase ideas, express support, check for clarification, and so on.
v Role Play
One other way of getting students to speak is role-playing. Students pretend they are in various social contexts and have a variety of social roles. In role-play activities, the teacher gives information to the learners such as who they are and what they think or feel. Thus, the teacher can tell the student that “You are David, you go to the doctor and tell him what happened last night, and…” (Harmer, 1984)
Students can briefly summarize a tale or story they heard from somebody beforehand, or they may create their own stories to tell their classmates. Story telling fosters creative thinking. It also helps students express ideas in the format of beginning, development, and ending, including the characters and setting a story has to have.
Students also can tell riddles or jokes. For instance, at the very beginning of each class session, the teacher may call a few students to tell short riddles or jokes as an opening. In this way, not only will the teacher address students’ speaking ability, but also get the attention of the class.
v Story Completion
This is a very enjoyable, whole-class, free-speaking activities for which students sit in a circle. For this activity, a teacher starts to tell a story, but after a few sentences he or she stops narrating. Then, each student starts to narrate from the point where the previous one stopped. Each student is supposed to add from four to ten sentences. Students can add new characters, events, descriptions and so on.
Before coming to class, students are asked to read a newspaper or magazine and, in class, they report to their friends what they find as the most interesting news. Students can also talk about whether they have experienced anything worth telling their friends in their daily lives before class.
v Picture Narrating
This activity is based on several sequential pictures. Students are a asked to tell the story taking place in the sequential pictures by paying attention to the criteria provided by the teacher as a rubric. Rubrics can include the vocabulary or structures they need to use while narrating.
v Picture Describing
Another way to make use of pictures in a speaking activity is to give students just one picture and having them describe what it is in the picture. For this activity students can form groups and each group is given a different picture. Students discuss the picture with their groups, and then a spokesperson for each group describes the picture to the whole class. This activity fosters the creativity and imagination of the learners as well as their public speaking skills.
Among informal assessment devices are a variety of games that directly involve language production. (Douglas, 2004: 176) consider the following types:
- Crossword puzzles are created in which the names of all members of a class are clued by observe information about them. Each class member must ask question of others to determine who matches the clues in the puzzle.
Clearly, such task have wandered away from the traditional nation of an oral production test and may even be well beyond assessment, you can put the tasks into perspective.
2.2 Speaking Ability
Speaking ability is important in the process of language learning. We communicate through speaking to gain much more information. Both teachers and students should realize the role of speaking ability for their success in language learning.
Speaking ability is an activity to produce utterances in oral communication. This activity involves two or more people in whom the participants are bother hearers and speakers having to react to what they hear and make their contribution at high speed, so that each participant has intention or a set of intention that he wants to (Keith and Morrow, 1981: 70)
Therefore, a teacher should encourage his or her students in using the target language, so that the will have speaking ability.
2.3 Components of Speaking Ability
There are some components in speaking ability that the students should master. They are: idea, fluency, vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation stress and intonation. There are also some Components underlying speaking effectiveness. They are grammatical competence, discourse competence, sociolinguistic competence, and strategic competence.
According to Manser (1991: 205), idea refers to picture in someone’s mind. It means that the main point of what someone’s say is called idea.
Idea can be expressed trough the communication. The idea is the important thing in communication. The speaker can express his or her idea although what he or she says is ungrammatical, as long as the hearer can catch the ides.
Fluency means being able to speak easily and smoothly. When person is fluent, they can speak a language easily, well, and quickly. When language is fluent, it is spoken easily without many pauses.
Vocabulary is all the words that a person knows and uses. In other word, it is all the words in a language (Oxford Advanced Learner’s pocket Dictionary new Edition: 482)
Grammar is the system of a language. Grammar deals with the organization or morpheme units into meaningful combinations. Manser defines grammar as the rule fore forming word and making sentence (1991: 182).
Pronunciation is a way in which a language or words is spoken (Manser, 1955: 331). If someone pronounces correctly, the audience will easy to catch the idea which is delivered by the speaker.
A Kusuma (1983: 32) says that stress is degree of force in which sound or a syllable is uttered. While Philip Binhan states, that in order to acquire a good pronunciation in English, it is important to study stressing in two aspects. Which syllables are stressed in a word, and which words are important and therefore stressed in a sentence (1985: 84).
Intonation is the rise and fall of the voice in speaking (Manser, 1991: 221). According to Advanced Learner Dictionary, intonation is the sound changes produced by the rise and fall of the voice when speaking, especially when this has an effect on the meaning of what is said.
2.3.8 Grammatical Competence
“Grammatical competence is an umbrella concept that includes increasing expertise in grammar (morphology, syntax), vocabulary, and mechanics. With regards to speaking, the term mechanics refers to basic sounds of letters and syllables, pronunciation of words, intonation, and stress” (Scarcella and Oxford 1992: 141). In order to convey meaning, EFL learners must have the knowledge of words and sentences; that is, they must understand how words are segmented into various sounds, and how sentences are stressed in particular ways. Thus, grammatical competence enables speakers to use and understand English language structures accurately and unhesitatingly, which contributes to their fluency.
2.3.9 Discourse competence
In addition to grammatical competence, EFL learners must develop discourse competence, which is concerned with intersentential relationships. In discourse, whether formal or informal, the rules of cohesion and coherence apply which aid in holding the communication together in a meaningful way. In communication, both the production and comprehension of a language require one’s ability to perceive and process stretches of discourse, and to formulate representations of meaning from referents in both previous sentences and following sentences. Therefore, effective speakers should acquire a large repertoire of structures and discourse markers to express ideas, show relationships of time, and indicate cause, contrast, and emphasis
2.3.10 Sociolinguistic competence
Knowledge of language alone does not adequately prepare learners for effective and appropriate use of the target language. Learners must have competence which involves knowing what is expected socially and culturally by users of the target language; that is, learners must acquire the rules and norms governing the appropriate timing and realization of speech acts. Understanding the sociolinguistic side of language helps learners know what comments are appropriate, know how to ask questions during interaction, and know how to respond nonverbally according to the purpose of the talk. Therefore, “adult second language learners must acquire stylistic adaptability in order to be able to encode and decode the discourse around them correctly” (Brown, 1994: 238).
2.3.11 Strategic competence
Strategic competence, which is “the way learners manipulate language in order to meet communicative goals” (Brown, 1994: 228), is perhaps the most important of all the communicative competence elements. Simply put, it is the ability to compensate for imperfect knowledge of linguistic, sociolinguistic, and discourse rules (Berns 1990). With reference to speaking, strategic competence refers to the ability to know when and how to take the floor, how to keep a conversation going, how to terminate the conversation, and how to clear up communication breakdown as well as comprehension problems. (www.eca.state.gov. accessed on 06th June 2009)
2.4 Problems with Speaking Activities
Unlike reading, writing, and listening activities, speaking requires some degrees of real-time exposure to an audience. Learners are often inhibited about trying to say things in a foreign language in the class. Worried about making mistake is still become a problem for the learners.
- Nothing to say
Even if they are not inhibited activities, you often hear learner complain that they cannot think of anything to say. They have no motivation to express themselves beyond the guilty feeling that they should be speaking.
- Low in participation
Only one participant can talk at a time if he or she to be heard and in a large groups. This means that each one will have only very little talking time. This problem is compounded by the tendency o some learners to dominate, while others speak very little or not at all.
2.5 Picture in Teaching English
According to (Oxford Advanced Learner’s pocket Dictionary new Edition: 322), picture is Painting, drawing, that shows a scene, a person or thing. It is impossible for the teacher or the tutor to bring real object in the class when it covers a large thing such as building, field, mountain etc. By using picture, he writer hopes that it can stimulate the learners to deliver the idea.
Picture can be drawn on the white board or on paper as flash cards. The important thing to remember in choosing or drawing pictures is that they should large enough to be seen by the learners and also not be ambiguous meaning that each picture indicates a clear idea.
2.5.1 Identification of Picture
Picture in this skripsi is divided into three parts. They are; individual picture, serial picture, and composite picture.
v Individual Picture
Individual picture are single pictures of subjects, person or activities. Such pictures vary in size from small newspaper pictures and full-page magazine. Sets of categories of individual picture should include object such as animal, occupation, sport, fruit, etc.
v Serial picture
A picture series is a number of related composite pictures linked to form a series or sequence. Therefore its main function is to tell a story or sequence picture series.
By using picture series, the learners will be able to say what they think the pictures are about and they can create numerous statements.
A wide picture series are available in textbook, and comics. Pictures series are helpful for the learners to develop their idea widely.
v Composite Picture
These are large single pictures which show a scene (hospital, beach, canteen, railway station, etc) in which a number of people can be seen doing things, they enable learner to see because of factors such as distance, time or cost.
Due to their size, composite pictures are most appropriate for whole class teaching rather than individualized learning or group work, although there is tendency on the part of the teacher to overuse such pictures in their effort to use the context to the maximum.
A composite picture is appropriate to use to develop learner’s idea because it can stimulate learner’s mind by seeing the picture.
2.6 The Use of “Picture describing” Method in Teaching Speaking
Another way to make use of pictures in a speaking activity is to give students just one picture and having them describe what it is in the picture. For this activity students can form groups and each group is given a different picture. Students discuss the picture with their groups, and then a spokesperson for each group describes the picture to the whole class. This activity fosters the creativity and imagination of the learners as well as their public speaking skills.
The picture which is used in this method is composite picture because it can make the speaker’s ideas larger. By seeing the act in the picture, hopefully the speakers can deliver their speaking well.
2.6.1 Procedure of Teaching Speaking Using “Picture Describing” method
In this section, the writer tries to explain the process of applying “picture describing” method in teaching.
a. The tutor prepares the material (pictures). Pictures which are used should not ambiguous
b. The tutor shows the pictures to the learners.
c. the tutor asks the learners one by one to deliver their idea after seeing the picture.
d. The tutor evaluates the result of the activity
SHINTA SEPTIA A
ENGLISH 2008 C
NPM : 1106080208
Applying ARCS Motivational Design (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) in Creating an Active Class in ESA (English Student Association) Writing Class.
NAME : NUR LAILIS SA’ADAH
NPM : 1106080142
CLASS : 2008 – C
1.1.1 Background of the Study
- Educational Problem Globally
Every teacher in the world wants to have active and enthusiastic students. The class is always alive. Students happily do all the given tasks without complaining or protesting first. All the duties from teacher work as challenging, enjoyable, and educating games. This atmosphere of teaching learning is highly wanted by all teachers. The question is how to make that dream comes true? In fact, most classes at schools do not have this atmosphere (ignoring who is responsible to this situation; the teacher is not professional or the students are too naughty). What is needed is a method that comforts both teachers and learners.
According to my experience—while I was conducting a training or teaching at class—my friends who have been teaching, and I found that in most schools, the students do not really cooperate with the teachers’ lesson plan. Most of the students do not give serious attention on the teachers’ explanation and when they are given tasks or activities, they respond it half-heartedly. Worse, when the tasks or duties are considered difficult, students will protest the teachers. But the worst is, when the teachers failed to gain the students’ attention after trying hard, the teachers got ‘mad’. They start to blame this all mess on the students. They consider their students are bad. But, is that such a judge true? That kind of teachers usually will give (physical) punishment to the incorporate students. And the result is, not kind of good students they get, but the kind of students with heart full of anger; worse, some students have revenge on such teachers. Of course, that’s disaster for both the teachers and the students.
Such problem seems to have been a universal problem. It exists in most classes at schools or courses all over the world. We can find mess class not only in Indonesia but also in Morocco, New Zealand, China, Australia, even also in America (http://teaching.berkeley.edu/problemstudents.html, accessed on May 12, 2009). As a result, today, we can find a flock of methods in managing class offered by many pedagogues. Those methods offer ways how to manage class, change a mess one to become an active and discipline one. This is of course good news for all teachers, but it still leaves one big question, which method is the most appropriate one to our class? This question relates on the background of the students and the teacher himself.
In this study, the writer chooses the title: “Applying ARCS Motivational Design (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) in Creating an Active Class in ESA (English Student Association) Writing Class”, because the writer realizes such a research is very urgent for a developing country like Indonesia. The people of Indonesia have different background. They differ from political, cultural, and economical and religion background. This urges those who want to apply any of new methods in teaching to be very selective and careful. That is the reason why the writer chooses this category as a field of research. The place of the research is at ESA English Student Association writing class in which the participants are from English students Department of UNIROW Tuban.
- Why ARCS?
Motivation is the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior as studied in philosophy, conflict, economics, psychology, and neuropsychology. These reasons may include basic needs such as food or a desired object, hobbies, goal, state of being, or ideal. (en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation, accessed on May 28, 2009)
Motivation is the most overlooked aspect of instructional strategy, and perhaps the most critical element needed for learners. Even the most elegantly designed training program will fail if the students are not motivated to learn. Without a desire to learn on the part of the students, retention is unlikely to happen. Many students in a corporate setting who are forced to complete training programs are motivated only to “pass the test.” Designers must strive to create a deeper motivation in learners for them to learn.
Why the writer chooses ARCS Motivational Design to be applied on the subject of the research? Because ARCS Motivational Design has an effective approach in modification a class situation (as it will be explained in chapter two). For example, as what has been done at Sendai Daiichi Junior High School, Japan. With an early introduction of instructional computers in 1976 and frequent utilization in various subject areas since then, computers seem to have lost their novelty effect at Sendai Daiichi Junior High School, unlike other schools. Meanwhile, the new Standard Course of Study has set forth the direction of school instruction to emphasize students’ motivation and self-directedness in learning. A new framework was in need so that computers could be used beyond their novelty effect. By applying ARCS Motivational Design, both teachers and students regain the novelty of learning technology—computer. (Computer Project Team, Sendai Daiichi Junior High School, 4-16-1, Hachiman-machi, Sendai 980 JAPAN, 1996).
John Keller synthesized existing research on psychological motivation and created the ARCS model (Keller, 1987). ARCS stands for Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction. This model is not intended to stand apart as a separate system for instructional design, but can be incorporated within other events of instruction. The synthesis allow you to identify the various elements of student motivation, and the design process helps you profile the motivational characteristics of students in a given learning environment and then design motivational tactics that are appropriate for them. The model has been used and validated by teachers and trainers in elementary and secondary schools, colleges, and universities, and in adult learning settings in corporations, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and military organization. It has also been used around the world on virtually every continent, and has been used extensively in Asia, Europe, and Latin America. Numerous research reports verify its validity and usefulness (http://www.arcsmodel.com, accessed on May 12, 2009)
Writing is more complicated than it seems at first, and often seems to be the hardest of the skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing it self, even for native speakers of a language, since it involves not just a graphic presentation of speech, but the development and presentation of thoughts in structured way. (Tuhfatul, 2007:16). This forces writing teachers/tutors to apply strategy which will help them motivating their students in learning writing. Based on the proofs above about the success of ARCS Motivational Design in motivating learners, the writer decides to apply it in his research. If the result is positive, this will strengthen the position of this method as one of effective methods in motivating learners.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
Based on the points reached from the background of the study above, the writer formulates several questions:
1.2.1 How far does ARCS Motivational Design improve the students writing skill?
1.2.2 What are the students’ attitudes toward ARCS Motivational Design?
1.3 Purposes of the Study
Based on the formulation of the problems above, the purpose of this study is to know:
1.3.1 Whether ARCS Motivational Design improves the students writing skill.
1.3.2 The students attitude toward ARCS Motivational Design .
1.4 Significance of the study
a. To the Teacher
The aim of this study is to help teachers who are eager of creating a new, lively and motivated teaching and learning environment, who are disable to wait any longer for an excellence of an active class, who are very motivated to make change in their monotonous class, who really need a suitable and effective method to be applied to their class. This study will avoid those great teachers spending their valuable time in a long research searching suitable method and making experiment on it since this study will help teachers to get information they need in motivating their students in learning English, especially writing.
b. To the Government
Government, as the authority of this state, decides all the rules and laws which are used in this country have responsibility—great responsibilities—to give the right solution for all problems which strike this state. Lines from environmental until economical problem, educational problem are one of the worst one. However, sometimes, government just does not see what the problems are so they can not give the right solution. As we all know, studying English nowadays is one of our needs since English holds the most important rule in world communication. Even almost all strategic job applications require their applicants to master English. This compels the government to solve problems in teaching second language; one of them is students’ lack motivation. So, this research is expected to be one of options the government can choose to be used to reduce students’ lack motivation in learning English. The writer hopes the government will make some kind of training to train teachers all over Indonesia to master this method.
1.5 Limitation of the Study
Concerning with the problems that must be solved, the writer limits the study as follows:
a. This study is limited to know the students’ attitudes toward ARCS Motivational Design and how far ARCS Motivational Design improve their writing skill.
b. The subjects of this research are the participants of ESA Writing Class.
c. The research area of this study is at I1 building of UNIROW PGRI Tuban on Jl. Manunggal No.61 Tuban where the writing class takes place.
1.6 Definition of Key Terms :
a. ARCS Motivational Design is a problem solving approach to create the motivational aspects of learning environments to stimulate and sustain students’ motivation to learn (Keller, 1983, 1984, 1987).
ARCS is abbreviation of Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and satisfaction. There are two major parts to the model. The first is a set of categories representing the components of motivation. These categories are the result of a synthesis of the research on human motivation. The second part of the model is a systematic design process that assists you in creating motivational enhancements that are appropriate for a given set of learners.
b. Active class; active, according to Oxford Advance Learners dictionary, means: doing things; busy or energetic. Moreover, class in this writing refers to group of students taught together. Therefore, active class means a group of students who are taught together and enthusiastically do all learning activities.
c. ESA Writing Class; ESA is an abbreviation of English Student Association, an organization of English student in Universitas PGRI Ronggolawe Tuban (UNIROW Tuban). In fact, this organization also exists in every English faculty in every university in Indonesia, but in this script ESA English Student Association refers to that one which exists at UNIROW Tuban. ESA English Student Association writing class is a writing class, which is held by ESA English Student Association for its members.
There is no level limitation to join this class. Every student of English department from all level can join it. Even it also welcomes participants from other departments who want to study English.
d. Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium through the use of a set of signs or symbols (known as a writing system). It is distinguished from illustration, such as cave drawing and painting, and the recording of language via a non-textual medium such as magnetic tape audio.
(en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Writing, accessed on May 28, 2009)
e. Ability is possession of the qualities (especially mental qualities) required to do something or get something done. (wordnet.princeton.edu/perl/webwn, accessed on May 28, 2009)
f. Writing ability is the quality of being able to create written works.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
In this chapter, the writer uses library research which supports and in accord with this study. This chapter contains several arguments, theories, and assumptions from several experts about learning writing, motivation and ARCS Motivational Design.
2.1 The importance of English
English is currently the most wide spread language in the world, it is second most spoken language in the world after Mandarin (http://www.peerpapers.com/-essays/English-Language-Importance/111355.html?topic, accessed on June 12, 2009). It is currently the primary language used on the World Wide Web, in the political and business arenas. It has even become the language of today’s pop culture.
While English may not have as large as quantity of speakers as Mandarin, it is still more widespread and herein lays its importance. Mandarin Chinese is hardly spoken outside Chinese communities. However, in many regions of the world where English is not the native language, it is still widely spoken and integrated in the curriculums of educational institutions. In many countries, Malaysia, for example, there where various ethnic groups with their own unique language, English is used as a means of communications between all of them. So we see that the importance of English does not lie in the quantity of people that speak it but in its function as international language.
Today the USA’s influence on world information is dominant. English, being their native tongue, as same with Britain. The music and other types of media that come out of these two countries are broadcasted around the world. Most of the world’s largest pop stars record English albums, which are played and requested in all the corners of the earth.
In order to communicate with people around the world, one need to use English. Otherwise, it can become really hard for a person especially if he or she is traveling. Communication in any field, whether it is professional or personal life, is very important and the mode of communicating should be similar. Otherwise, things can get difficult.
For travelers or business men, learning English would be an added benefit and business can do really good if proper communication is made with the clients. All over the world, the best books are written in English. The global World Wide Web is ninety nine percent in English. So if one does not know English then one is keeping his self away from half of the world’s knowledge. If one does not understand English he will not be able to even read what the writer has written.
Students all over the world try to take English as one of their main subjects because now trends have changed and people have realized how important it is for us to learn English in order to communicate properly. So, English is the international language everyone learns. Even though there are several languages spoken by many nations in this world, English is the one which is wide-spread all over the world. This, of course, urges every nation whose English is not their first language to study hard to master it. The problem is, English—almost—always consider as difficult subject for foreign learners and even some of them feel afraid learning it. This—absolutely—helps nothing for them.
Nevertheless, people learn a second language more successfully in culture which a second language is needed, as in most African countries which they need to use English to interact with people around the world, and then they do in cultures which second language proficiency considered unusual, as in most English speaking countries. This explains why many foreigners speak English but people from English spoken countries do not speak any other foreign languages (Comrie, Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia, 2002)
Learning English—the same as learning any other foreign language—takes long time because learner must learn many aspects of it, such as: vocabulary, pronunciation, grammar, etc. Mastery of a second language is a skill that must be acquired through a process (Harjono, 1983)
2.2 Learning English
There are many ways to study English, but many learners ask which is the most effective. For English is the most important language nowadays, people can not avoid from studying it. It urges people to find the most effective way in learning English. Unfortunately, there is no a single way that is right for every people. However, the writer can certainly give some helpful guidelines as how to study effectively and joyful.
v Activating Vocabulary
Activate vocabulary by thinking or speaking shortly about the subject which is about to work on. For example, if one is going to study English on topic that focuses on vacations, take a moment to think about the last vacation one had, what he/she did, what he/she enjoyed, etc. This simple exercise will help the brain warm-up to vocabularies that are usually used when one is learning about this particular subject.
v Activating Grammar
Activate grammar by thinking about the general grammar area before begin to study. For example, if one is going to study English grammar focusing on the past, stop to think about what happened last weekend, where one went, etc. to help activate what one already understands about using the past. As with activating vocabulary, it will help one’s brain bring up what it knows about the past simple in an easy way before one begins to focus on studying English grammar in detail.
v Singing a Song
Before a class begins, or before learners sit down to study English, sing a song in English to themselves. Make sure to use a song that they understand and know very well. This short and fun exercise will help learner’s brain focus on the English language in a relaxing manner. It is important to be relaxed when learners study English. Singing a song also helps activate the creative side of learners’ brain which can help them to be more creative to get ideas as they practice conversation or do some writing assignments. Even some people—including the writer himself, can not stop singing English songs to train their English skill.
v Typing a Short Paragraph in English
If one is going to study English, begin by typing a simple paragraph in English. It is probably about his day, his hobbies, his friends, etc. Anything will do. Typing helps activate the kinetic part of one’s brain that helps improve learning through physical activity. It is also recommended typing while one studies English grammar. This will help solidify the knowledge with movement. It is important while typing one does not need to worry about any errors he may makes.
2.3 Learning Writing
Writing is the activity or occupation of writing e.g. books, stories or articles, (Oxford Advance Learners Dictionary, 1995:1383). Generally, writing is grouped in to two, formal (academic, business, journalism, etc) and informal writing (poem, stories, biography, song lyric, etc). It, too, is more complicated than it seems at first, and often seems to be the hardest of the skills—listening, speaking, reading, and writing, even for native speakers of a language , since it involves not just a graphic presentation of speech, but the development and presentation of thoughts in structured way. (Tuhfatul, 2007:16). In ESA Writing Class, both formal and informal writing are taught. The aim of this class is not to ‘teach’ writing but to ‘show’ how and motivate to write. So, the class does not only learn about rules of writing, but also tips and strategies to start writing.
Here are some tips to improve writing skill:
ü Write frequently, in a wide range of formal and informal situations. Writing consistently will make the brain get used to composing and arranging words. No matter how clever someone is if he never writes before, he will get a serious problem to start his first composition.
ü Get the most out of dictionary by understanding how to use it correctly. Use a good English dictionary to find words, for meaning, for pronunciation, to check spelling and to understand explanations.
ü Copy out short passages of English text from newspapers, magazines or books. By copying passages one will learn how to make a good composition subconsciously. This is very good method in fact.
ü Try dictation exercises. One can do this online or get friends to read out text to write and then check the writing result—concentrate on spelling and punctuation.
ü There are many forums on the net, find one about interests or hobbies and join it. Observe the niceties of forum use, give comment and address other users. ]
ü Use a blog to create a diary life. Write it in English and let people give their feedback. Remember blog are not private, so do not write anything there which is secret and do not want the whole world to read.
ü Be careful about using abbreviations when writing on forums and in chatrooms, they are fun and quick, but can cause bad habits to form. it is forbidden to use that such writing style in formal writing.
ü If one is using a computer, use an English spell checker (but don’t rely on it). it helps writer to know his weakness and keep him from mistakes.
ü Check what has been written. Even better, get someone else to proofread it. Check for spelling, capitalization and punctuation—those three are the most common error made by writers.
ü Try to find English speaking pen friends and write to them or, use a messenger service like MSN, Yahoo, and Google or find a chatroom.
If it is hard to find native speakers, contact other learners. (http://www.learnenglish.de/ImproveEnglish/improvewritingpage.htm, accessed on June 12, 2009)
2.4 Characteristics of Correct and Good Writing
2.4.1 Correct Writing
Correct writing simply means writing that contains no bad mistakes—that is, no errors of grammar, punctuation, or spelling. This writing is free from any grammatical errors such as using inappropriate tenses, mistakes in composing sentences or phrases, etc. It is also free from punctuation errors. Writers—usually beginners—often do not pay good attention on punctuation. Mistakes in using punctuation affect on the correctness of each sentence. The last requirement of correct writing is correct spelling. This error is usually done inadvertently. While typing—especially writing English, writer does not really pay attention on each word they type. This makes such errors possible to happen.
To avoid—or at least reduce it—this error, one can install spelling and grammar checker program to his computer or notebook. But, no matter how sophisticated one’s checker program, one still needs human checking to ensure there are no any errors in his writing.
2.4.2 Characteristic of Good Writing
Good writing consists of all characteristics in correct writing plus several other characteristics. These characters distinguish a good writing from others which is not good. This is very crucial, since a bad writing will not deliver the message within fluently to the reader(s). Those characteristics are:
A good writing must have topic which is developed. It not only names the topic of a writing, but it also limits the topic to one or two areas that can be discussed completely in the writing. And the areas which clarify the topic called controlling ideas. In good writing, both the topic and the controlling ideas are stated in one sentence. See this example: war must be avoided for at least four reasons. War in that sentence is the topic and the four reasons are the controlling ideas.
- § Supporting Sentences Or Paragraphs
Supporting sentences develop the topic sentence. That is, they explain the topic sentence by giving reasons, examples, facts, statistics, and quotations. Supporting sentences help readers to have comprehended understanding about the topic discussed. For example: war must be avoided for at least four reasons. First of all, war destroys economy; industry, agriculture, factories, etc. are closed while the war takes place. Second, war kills people, no matter they are innocent or not. Genocide, massacre, and murder happen in war. The third, war wrecks the international relationship since war usually not only involve two countries but some others countries. Even it can be a whole world war just like what happened in the World War I and II. And the last, war destroys human civilization. The Iraq war today between Iraq and United States alliance—England, Australia, France, and Italy—destroyed the very old human civilization hberitage. It demolished the Mesopotamian, Babylonian, and the great Islamic ancient civilization from the previous centuries.
§ Concluding Sentence Or Paragraph
This part concludes all the discussion in the composition. This is important to help readers get the correct and comprehensive understanding. For example: war must be avoided for at least four reasons. First of all, war destroys economy; industry, agriculture, factories, etc. are closed while the war takes place. Second, war kills people, no matter they are innocent or not. Genocide, massacre, and murder happen in war. The third war wrecks the international relationship since war usually not only involve two countries but some others countries. Even it can be a whole world war just like what happened in the World War I and II. And the last, war destroys human civilization. The Iraq war today between Iraq and United States Alliance—England, Australia, France, and Italy—destroyed the very old human civilization heritage. It demolished the Mesopotamian, Babylonian, and the great Islamic ancient civilization from the previous centuries. In conclusion, war must be avoided since it brings nothing but misery and destruction, such as economical problem, murder, wrecking international relation and the last, destroy human civilization.
Unity means that a composition discusses only one main idea. If one is writing a paragraph, the main idea is stated in the topic sentence, and then each and every supporting sentence develops that idea. If, for example, it is stated in the topic sentence that the paragraph will discuss about reasons why people should avoid war, discuss only those. Do not discuss anything else such as what causes a war, how to stop war, or the worst war ever on this planet. This paragraph is also a unity paragraph since the topic of this paragraph is about unity and it discusses only about unity.
Coherence means that a composition is easy to read and understand. To make a composition readable and understandable, one should make the composition’s supporting sentences in some kind of logical order, the ideas are connected by using appropriate transition signals. For example, in the composition about war above, each supporting sentences are connected using transition signals; first of all, the second, the third, and the last.
The last characteristic of a good writing is, of course, it must be a correct writing. Good writing contains no bad mistakes—that is, no errors of grammar, punctuation, or spelling. This writing free from any grammatical errors such as using inappropriate tenses, mistake in composing sentences or phrases, etc. It is also free from punctuation errors. No matter how great it is the idea of a writing, how unity each paragraphs and hoe coherence per sentences and per paragraphs, if it is not a correct writing, reader will not understand it well.
2.5 Motivation Theories
• Hierarchy of Needs – Abraham Maslow
One model of motivation that has gained a lot of attention, but not complete acceptance, has been put forward by Abraham Maslow. Maslow’s theory argues that individuals are motivated to satisfy a number of different kinds of needs, some of which are more powerful than others (or to use the psychological jargon, are more prepotent than others). The term prepotency refers to the idea that some needs are felt as being more pressing than others. Maslow argues that until these most pressing needs are satisfied, other needs have little effect on an individual’s behaviour. In other words, we satisfy the most prepotent needs first and then progress to the less pressing ones. As one need becomes satisfied, and therefore less important to us, other needs loom up and become motivators of our behavior.
The first needs that anyone must satisfy are physiological. As Maslow says:
“Undoubtedly these physiological needs are the most prepotent of all needs. What this means specifically is that in the human being who is missing everything in life in an extreme fashion, it is most likely that the major motivation would be the physiological needs rather than any others. A person who is lacking food, safety, love and esteem would probably hunger for food more strongly than anything else”.
Once the first level needs are largely satisfied, Maslow maintains, the next level of needs emerges. Individuals become concerned with the need for safety and security – protection from physical harm, disaster, illness and security of income, life-style and relationships.
Similarly, once these safety needs have become largely satisfied, individuals become concerned with belonging – a sense of membership in some group or groups, a need for affiliation and a feeling of acceptance by others.
When there is a feeling that the individual belongs to somewhere, he or she is next motivated by a desire to be held in esteem. People need to be thought of as worthwhile by others, to be recognized as valuable people. They also have a strong need to see themselves as worthwhile people. Without this type of self-concept, one sees oneself as drifting, cut off, pointless. Much of this dissatisfaction with certain types of job centers around the fact that they are perceived, by the people performing them, as demeaning and therefore damaging to their self-concept.
Finally, Maslow says, when all these needs have been satisfied at least to some extent, people are motivated by a desire to self-actualize, to achieve whatever they define as their maximum potential, to do their thing to the best of their ability. Maslow describes self-actualization as follows:
“A musician must make music, an artist must paint, a poet must write, if he is to be ultimately happy. What a man can do, he must do. This need we may call self-actualisation … It refers to the desire for self-fulfilment, namely the tendency for one to become actualised in what one is potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming.
The specific form these needs take will of course vary greatly from person to person. In one individual it may be expressed maternally, as the desire to be an ideal mother, in another athletically, in still another aesthetically, the painting of pictures, and in another inventively in the creation of new contrivances. It is not necessarily a creative urge although in people who have any capabilities for creation it will take this form.”
• Dual-Factor Theory – Frederick Herzberg
Frederick Herzberg and his associates began their research into motivation during the 1950′s, examining the models and assumptions of Maslow and others. The result of this work was the formulation of what Herzberg termed the Motivation-Hygiene Theory (M-H). The basic hypotheses of this theory are that:
1. There are two types of motivators, one type which results in satisfaction with the job, and the other which merely prevents dissatisfaction. The two types are quite separate and distinct from one another. Herzberg called the factors which result in job satisfaction motivators and those that simply prevented dissatisfaction hygienes
2. The factors that lead to job satisfaction (the motivators) are:
• work itself
3. The factors which may prevent dissatisfaction (the hygienes) are:
• company policy and administration
• working conditions
• interpersonal relations
Hygienes, if applied effectively, can at best prevent dissatisfaction: if applied poorly, they can result in negative feelings about the job.
Motivators are those things that allow for psychological growth and development on the job. They are closely related to the concept of self-actualisation, involving a challenge, an opportunity to extend oneself to the fullest, to taste the pleasure of accomplishment, and to be recognised as having done something worthwhile.
Hygienes are simply factors that describe the conditions of work rather than the work itself. Herberg’s point is that if you want to motivate people, you have to be concerned with the job itselfand not simply with the surroundings.
In a medical sense, growth, healing and development occur as natural internal processes. They are the result of proper diet, exercise, sleep etc. Hygienic procedures simply prevent disease from occurring. They do not promote growth per se. Herzberg says that we should focus our attention on the individuals in jobs, not on the things that we surround them with. He maintains that we tend to think that growth and development will occur if we provide good working conditions, status, security and administration, whereas in fact what stimulates growth (and motivation to grow and develop) are opportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility and advancement.
Once again, this theory has a basic attraction. As Joe Kelly puts it, however:
“It is always as well to bear in mind that academics, who place considerable value on autonomy and inner direction, have an obsession about making work meaningful. The notion that it is possible to realise man’s true nature through creative work which is its own reward is an exceedingly attractive proposition to the learned don which is rarely fully shared by his wife”.
Herzberg goes further than Maslow, cutting the hierarchy off near the top and maintaining that motivation results only from some elements of esteem needs and self-actualisation.
• The Need for Achievement – David McClelland
The one single motivating factor which has received the most attention in terms of research is the need for achievement (n-ach). As a result, we know more about n-ach than any other motivational factor. Much of this knowledge is due the work of David McClelland of Harvard. To illustrate what he means by the need for achievement, McClelland cites the following example:
“Several years ago, a careful study was made of 450 workers who had been thrown out of work by a plant shutdown in Erie, Pennsylvania. Most of the unemployed workers stayed at home for a while and then checked with the employment service to see if their old jobs or similar ones were available. But a small minority among them behaved differently; the day they were laid off, they started job hunting. They checked both national and local employment offices; they studied theHelp Wanted sections of the papers; they checked through their union, their church and various fraternal organizations; they looked into training courses to learn a new skill; they even left town to look for work, while the majority when questioned said they would not under any circumstances move away to obtain a job. Obviously the members of the active minority were differently motivated”.
Individuals with a high n-ach have a number of distinctive characteristics which separate them from their peers. First of all, they like situations where they can take personal responsibility for finding solutions to problems. This allows them to gain personal satisfaction from their achievements. They do not like situations where success or failure results from chance. The important thing is that the outcome be the result of their own skill and effort.
A second characteristic of high n-ach people is that they like to set moderately high goals for themselves. These goals are neither so low that they can be achieved with little challenge, nor so high that they are impossible.
• The Internal Motivation
People are bestowed awareness and spirit to survive; awareness helps them to conscious of their environment and their needs, and spirit helps them to keep struggling to encounter challenges they faced (Freud: 1954:88).
When people are aware of their environment and it’s challenges they will start to make alteration. If the challenges require strong physical efforts, people will make their physics stronger—as to primitive society, in which their survive is depended on how strong they are (Charles Darwin, The Origin of Species). But when the environment requires good skill in certain fields, people will learn to gain that skill to keep survive—as in this modern life. This characteristic is naturally built in human’s mind, and this is also which helps human—Homo sapiens—survived from extinction.
When students are aware of their moving forward world and the challenges within, they will realize that they need to learn many things—knowledge and skills—while they are studying at schools, and the spirit inside will keep them struggling to make all effort needed to gain knowledge and skills they need to face their future. This is called internal motivation or self motivational-equipment (Jung, 1955:23).
• The External Motivation
This motivation comes from other people. Sometimes one can not optimize their own motivational-equipment, they become hopeless and less enthusiastic. If they are doing something they turn to be nonchalant people on the matter they are doing.
In such situation, people need external motivation, in other words they need someone else to motivate them. It can be advice, suggestion or support. It is very important to have someone to talk with and giving motivation while one is in less motivated condition.
2.6 The Importance of Motivation in Learning
From the explanation above, we can conclude that motivation is the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior as studied in English, economics, psychology, and neuropsychology. These reasons may include basic needs such as food or a desired object, hobbies, goal, state of being, or ideal. Motivation encourages people to do something harder and more seriously than those who do the same thing without motivation within.
Motivation is the most overlooked aspect to gain great result in learning something, and perhaps the most critical element needed for learners. Even the most elegantly designed training program will fail if the students do not have motivation to learn. Without a desire to learn on the part of the student, retention is unlikely. Many students in a corporate setting who are forced to complete training programs are motivated only to “pass the test.” teachers must strive to create a deeper motivation in learners for them to learn new skills and transfer those skills back into their real life. Learn to pass the test is so much different compare with learning to learn new skills.
Learning without motivation has very low possibilities to reach success (http://www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_5.htm, Kevin Kruse, accessed on June 22, 2009). Why? Since motivation holds factor which make one does something with all effort, so people needs to have motivation while doing or learning something.
2.6.1 Influence of Motivation to the Success of Language Learning
It is well known in foreign language teacher community that students have difficulty with learning a foreign language which completely differs with their mother tongue, and this can result in high drop-out and failure rates. When this happen, motivation is absolutely needed to change the situation of the class.
Student motivation can be described as a student’s willingness, need, desire and compulsion to participate and be successful in the learning process. Although students may be equally motivated to perform a task, the sources of their motivation may differ. A student who is motivated undertakes an activity for its own sake, for the enjoyment it provides, the learning it permits, or the feelings of accomplishment it evokes. A less motivated student studies to avoid punishment. A number of studies, have found that students who are motivated than those who are less motivated perform better
This study examined the relationship and predictive ability of motivation and the success of learning a foreign language. The result of the research is positively prove that motivation is as important as the teaching itself. Teaching without motivating is useless, because the students will achieve very little from what the teacher gives. To this conclusion, all teachers should note that motivating their students is their second most important responsibility. (Susan Bergin and Ronan Reilly, Department of Computer Science, NUI Maynooth, http://www.cs.nuim.ie, accessed on July 7, 2009 )
A number of studies have found that students who are more intrinsically motivated than extrinsically motivated perform better, and that using extrinsic motivators to engage students in learning can both lower achievement and negatively affect student motivation (P. Romero, J. Good, E. Acosta Chaparro & S. Bryant (Eds). Proc. PPIG 17 Pages 293 – 304)
According to Jere Brophy (1987), motivation to learn is a competence acquired “through general experience but stimulated most directly through modeling, communication of expectations, and direct instruction or socialization by significant others (especially parents and teachers).” motivation makes student reads up their material lessons gotten from school, do all—or most of—school duties impassionedly. this is what all teachers should do while teaching, not only delivering information (knowledge), but also motivate the students themselves (www.kidsource.com/kidsource/ content2/student_motivation.html#contents).
2.7 A Brief History of ARCS Motivational Design
It is a model of motivation design developed by John M. Keller (1979, 1983). While many of the instructional design models were focused on instruction at would be effective if the students wanted to learn, Keller makes this ARCS Motivational Design more appealing. ARCS Motivational Design was based on certain earlier researches, such as the research of Berlyne (1965). Maslow (1954), Atkinson and
Raynor (1974), etc. By combining and making certain changes, Keller made ARCS Motivational Design as an easy-to-use prescriptive model for obtaining and maintaining motivation.
2.7.1 Descriptions of ARCS
The ARCS model is a problem solving approach to designing the motivational aspects of learning environments to stimulate and sustain students’ motivation to learn (Keller, 1983, 1984, 1987). There are two major parts to the model. The first is a set of categories representing the components of motivation. These categories are the result of a synthesis of the research on human motivation. The second part of the model is a systematic design process that assists you in creating motivational enhancements that are appropriate for a given set of learners. The synthesis allows you to identify the various elements of student motivation, and the design process helps you profile the motivational characteristics of students in a given learning environment and then design motivational tactics that are appropriate for them. The model has been used and validated by teachers and trainers in elementary and secondary schools, colleges, and universities, and in adult learning settings in corporations, government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and military organization. In other words, in virtually every setting in which there is a requirement for people to learn. It has also been used around the world on virtually every continent, and has been used extensively in Asia, Europe, and Latin America.
2.7.2 The parts of ARCS Motivational Design
S Satisfaction Intrinsic reinforcement
1. Attention, what can we do to capture learner’s interest?
a) Keller attention can be gained in three ways: (1) Perceptual arousal – uses surprise or uncertainly to gain interest. Uses novel, surprising, incongruous, and uncertain events; or (2) Inquiry arousal – stimulates curiosity by posing challenging questions or problems to be solved and variability – use a variety of methods in presenting material.
b) Methods for grabbing the learners’ attention include the use of:
• Active participation -Adopt strategies such as games, roleplay or other hands-on methods to get learners involved with the material or subject matter.
• Variability – To better reinforce materials and account for individual differences in learning styles, use a variety of methods in presenting material (e.g. use of videos, short lectures, mini-discussion groups).
• Humor -Maintain interest by use a small amount of humor (but not too much to be distracting)
• Incongruity and Conflict – A devil’s advocate approach in which statements are posed that go against a learner’s past experiences.
• Specific examples – Use a visual stimuli, story, or biography.
• Inquiry – Pose questions or problems for the learners to solve, e.g. brainstorming activities.
2. Relevance, refers to the personal significance and value the learner attaches to achieving the learning objective.
Establish relevance in order to increase a learner’s motivation. To do this, use concrete language and examples with which the learners are familiar. Six major strategies described by Keller include:
• Experience – Tell the learners how the new learning will use their existing skills. We best learn by building upon our preset knowledge or skills.
• Present Worth – What will the subject matter do for me today?
• Future Usefulness – What will the subject matter do for me tomorrow?
• Needs Matching – Take advantage of the dynamics of achievement, risk taking, power, and affiliation.
• Modeling – First of all, “be what you want them to do!” Other strategies include guest speakers, videos, and having the learners who finish their work first to serve as tutors.
• Choice – Allow the learners to use different methods to pursue their work or allowing s choice in how they organize it.
3. Confidence, relates to the learners’ expectation of success.
• Help students understand their likelihood for success. If they feel they cannot meet the objectives or that the cost (time or effort) is too high, their motivation will decrease.
• Provide objectives and prerequisites – Help students estimate the probability of success by presenting performance requirements and evaluation criteria. Ensure the learners are aware of performance requirements and evaluative criteria.
• Allow for success that is meaningful.
• Grow the Learners – Allow for small steps of growth during the learning process.
• Feedback – Provide feedback and support internal attributions for success.
• Learner Control – Learners should feel some degree of control over their learning and assessment. They should believe that their success is a direct result of the amount of effort they have put forth.
4. Satisfaction, it is derived from achieving the performance goals.
• Learning must be rewarding or satisfying in some way, whether it is from a sense of achievement, praise from a higher-up, or mere entertainment.
• Make the learner feel as though the skill is useful or beneficial by providing opportunities to use newly acquired knowledge in a real setting.
• Provide feedback and reinforcement. When learners appreciate the results, they will be motivated to learn. Satisfaction is based upon motivation, which can be intrinsic or extrinsic.
• Do not patronize the learner by over-rewarding easy tasks. (http://www.learning-theories.com/kellers-arcs-model-of-motivational-design.html., accessed on January 07, 2009)
2.8 ESA Writing Class
ESA Writing Class is kind of English writing class which is held by one of ESA department, The Human Resource Department. It was founded in…The class is held every Sunday and Thursday at certain place of UNIROW Tuban. In fact, the class does not only for practicing writing but for all English skills—listening, speaking, reading and writing. So, the class is divided into several sections in two different days, on Sunday it is for studying reading and writing, on Thursday it is for studying listening and speaking.
The participants of the class are students from English department and other departments who want to learn English. There is no level limitation since the materials which are taught are English in general.
In this chapter, the research will discuss the research method used in this study. The discussion is as follows: research design, location of the research, subject of the study, procedure of collecting data and data analysis.
3.1 Research Design
The research used is the descriptive research in this study. The descriptive research is designed to obtain information concerning the current status of phenomenon and it is directed toward determining the nature of situation as it exists the time of the study and there are several types of studies, developmental studies, follow up studies, documentary and relation studies (Ary, 1979: 393)
In this study, the writer used a survey based on interview, observation, and questionnaire. It is also a descriptive qualitative. It means that the data of the writer are presented through words than numbers.
In this study, the writer uses observation. It describes the activities done in ESA Writing Class. Besides, the writer used questionnaire to get deeper information about the influence of applying ARCS Motivational Design in motivating students in learning writing.
3.2 Location of the Research
This research is conducted at English Corner Room (ECR) UNIROW Tuban where the class is held. ECR is located at Jl. Manunggal No. 61 Tuban.
3.3 The Subject of the Study
Subjects of the study are individuals who participate in a research or people who give data which are needed by the writer (Mc. Millan, 1992:68). A writer can not prove anything without having subject to analyze on.
To complete this research in getting information about the influence applying ARCS Motivational Design in writing class, the writer involves the members of ESA Writing Class. The writer chooses them since the subject they are learning is appropriate with result the writer wants to find out concerning ARCS Motivational Design. The participants of the class come from different classes from various levels—even some are from non-English department.
3.4 Research Instruments
After determining location and the subject of the research, the writer move to next step, deciding research instruments which are used in this research. All the instruments are chosen for its compatibility with the research purposes. Those instruments are:
Observation is an activity done to get information about something; the activity is observing the subjects in the area directly to know the activities done (Karti Soeharto, 2000:83).
Through this observation, the writer wants to know:
1. The enthusiasm of the students while following ESA Writing Class.
2. The students responses on the way of the tutor teaches writing material (whether they are motivated or not).
The writer’s reasons in using questionnaires to collect data are:
1. It is applicative to big numbers of sampling and easy to administer
2. It takes less time
3. It allows the respondents to have more time to think while answering each questions
4. The respondents themselves can give their opinion freely without having any intimidation sense which usually comes to face-to-face interview.
5. The data collected from respondents are easy to analyze since all respondents given the same questions and each question has the same answer option.
The data from questionnaires will cover responses from respondents toward the method applied by the tutor in ESA Writing Class whether the method gives positive or negative influence. This will measure how motivated they are during the class.
“Interview is a method collecting data by giving questions and answer orally done by two or more persons systematically and based on the objective of the research”. (Sutrisno Hadi, 1989:193)
Based the definition above, we know that interview is the kind of collecting data orally. A researcher asks question(s) to the source(s) to get the information needed. The writer of this script uses interview—beside giving questionnaire—to get more detailed information about the research. Interview helps to get valid and clear data.
Reasons to make interview are:
1. To prove ESA Writing Class participants statement orally.
2. To know how far ARCS Motivational Design motivate them in learning
3.5 The Technique of Collecting Data
To collect data the writer uses three appropriate techniques—for the research is a descriptive research—they are observation, questionnaire, and interview.
The writer observes the activity of ESA Writing Class to get information or data about the influence of applying ARCS motivational design in learning writing class. By this the writer would like to compare the data gotten from interview and questionnaire.
By carrying observation out the writer will get real data about this ESA Writing Class. Not only that, it also will support information from interview and questionnaire.
The questionnaires are given to the participants of the writing class in order to get their reasons joining this class, their responses on the tutor motivating effort, their opinion about the learning process, and other things. The data gotten will be collected and analyzed.
In the interview, the writer asks questions about their opinion concerning the whole learning process in the class, whether they are motivated or not, whether the tutor can get their attention or not, and whether there is any differences between the tutor with other who do not apply this motivation method. Besides these questions, the writer wants to crosscheck the obtained data through the questions.
3.6 Procedure of Data Analysis
By the data acquired through observation, questionnaire, and interviewing, then the writer analyses the data. Technique of analyzing the data used by the writer is as follows:
1. The data from the interview and the observation are analyzed descriptively. The formula as follows:
Where : P = Percentage that will be found
X = Frequency of the students’ answer of each item
N = Number of the students
A paper presented at the 21st Annual Meeting of the Japan Society for Informatics and Systems in Education, Kanazawa, JAPAN, Aug., 3, 1996
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Fauzan, Nur. 2011. Using Total Physical Response in Theaching English to Young Learner’s at SDN Bangunrejo 02 Kec. Soko – Tuban
Fauzan, Nur. 2011. Using Total Physical Response in Theaching English to Young Learner’s at SDN Bangunrejo 02 Kec. Soko – Tuban
Teaching English in Elementary school has been a booming issue in Indonesia, and so far, many Elementary school have conducted and included this teaching English to elementary school it is based on the 2011 curriculum which allows elementary school inIndonesiainclude English in their lesson program. The aim of this introduction is to give students the skills of reading, listening, speaking and writing in simple form of English which is in line with their level of development and interest (Guide and Prosperity implementation KTSP for Elementary school 2006: 73).
The researcher conduct the study to get the information about (1) Students interest toward English end their Involvement in class, (2) Students attitude toward TPR application, (3) TPR effect in students, (4) Students achievement in joining TPR. This study uses descriptive qualitative research. There are three instruments used to obtain the data : Questionnaire, observation, and interview with the English teacher All the instruments are used to collect the data, information that support for this study after collecting the data, there are some steps taken to analyze the data such as : classifying, analyzing and making conclusion.
There sample of this study was the fourth grade of SDN Bangunrejo 02 Soko – Tuban, consisting of 32 students, in addition, to see the significance the teaching techniques effect on students’ achievement the result is gathered from questionnaire, observation and interview with English teacher. The result of TPR questionnaire to the student attitude toward English teaching at school is good, and the student attitude toward TPR technique could effect on students motivation and students comprehension of the teaching material concept. It could answer the statement of the problem that TPR is effective to young learners.
After finding the result, the researcher suggests that the English teacher should choose the appropriate and even collaborate many techniques to the better result. It is does to the fact that English teacher plays a very important role for the success or failure of the English instruction.
USING TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE IN
TEACHING ENGLISH TO YOUNG LEARNER AT SDN 02 BANGUNREJO SOKO – TUBAN ACADEMIC YEAR
2011 / 2012
ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
FACULTY OF TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION UNIVERSITY OF PGRI RONGGOLAWE
This chapter discusses some topics related to the background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, limitation of the study, significance of the study and definition of the terms.
1.1 Background of the study
Teaching English in Elementary School has recently been a booming issue in Indonesian, and so far, many Elementary Schools have conducted and included this teaching English to Elementary school. This teaching is based on the 2006 curriculum which allows Elementary School in Indonesian to include English in their lesson program. The aims of this instructions is to give students the skills of reading, listening, speaking, and writing in simple form and English which is in line with their level of development and interest ( Guide and Prosperity Implementation KTSP for Elementary School 2006 : 73 )
Teaching English to young learners is quite different from adult learners, it is because the way they learn a foreign language is different from adult way to learn. Children developing conceptually; therefore, in the learning they need something realistic (Clark, 1991:6). They learn language by using Total Physical Response. Philips (1995:5) says that younger learners respond to language according to what it does or what they can do with it rather than treating it as an abstract system. Further more children learn best when they are motivated by being interested in the activity or being involved in activities which are relevant to them (Pahin and Power as devoted by Kasbolah, 1996: 5). In other words, in learning English as a foreign language children learn and understand the language better by treating and applying it into actual activities which what they can do with it than receiving it as an abstract concept.
Jensen (as Quoted by Richard & Rodgers, 1986:89) claims that there are seven stages to describe the physical of verbal stimulus and response, in the context, prefer to the physical movement the child makes in response to the verbal stimulus in this stage, the young child, who style can not speak yet, learns the language by giving responses to a parental verbal a foreign language in that the Elementary School student never hear, know and understand before. Therefore, in learning English as a foreign language they may adopt the way the learnt and acquire their first language.
Regarding the characteristics of young learners above, a teacher here is required to be more critical and creative in selecting or even collaborating any techniques available which are relevant to their characteristic and development stage. There have been many methods of teaching English as a second and foreign language developed and used so far. Some of them are, for instance the Grammar translation and suggestion. Each of these methods, of course, has it own value with its superiority. TPR is one of these methods that attempts to teach language through psychomotor activity (Richards & Rodger 1986;87). This method, developed by James Asher, is addressed to teach the beginners oral proficiency of a foreign language at an introductory level (Richard & Rodger 1986:91). Some efficiency of using this method is that it forces not only to the teacher, but also the students to be actively involved in teaching learning process and this method tries to dispose the students subconscious learning.
TPR is also called the comprehension approach and gives emphasize on listening comprehension skill. The idea of focusing in listening comprehension during early foreign language instruction here comes from observing how children acquire their mother tongue (Larsen – Freeman, 1986:109). Young children many months are listening to the people around them before ever say a words. They respond to a language physically before they begin to produce verbal response and they will decide to respond verbally when they are ready. Furthermore,(Larsen – freeman, 1986;110) explains that in the total physical response (TPR) students listen and respond to the spoken target language command of their teacher. The students, during the instruction, may not imitate what teacher is doing and respond to what teacher command them to do. In other words, the TPR technique lets the students to be in a silent and respond physically in stead of verbally to the command and question until they themes selves decide to do so when they are ready.
Hamamah (1998; 57-58) and Nurisnaini (2000: 40-41) who conducted this studies in the some area supported their finding. Both of them found two important things: (1) children are fond of doing class activities which involve body movement such as clapping hands, painting or touching the objects, and demonstrating some actions or mimicry, and (2) the fact that the class teachers involved in the studies seldom gave such kind of these activities, instead they used conventional technique, i.e. explaining, drills or question and answer further.
Regarding the findings above, it can be concluded that most of the elementary school teachers are not creative enough in managing the class to be conducive for students since they lack knowledge in choosing this condition, therefore, for helping the English teacher at the elementary schools to find the effective technique in teaching English to young learners that relevant with the students characteristic, the researcher choose the title; USING TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE IN TEACHING ENGLISH TO YOUNG LEARNER AT SDN BANGUNREJO 02 SOKO – TUBAN ACADEMIC YEARS 2011/2012.
1.2 Statement of the Study
Based on the background of the study above, this study is intended to answer the following question. Is TPR technique effective to young learners?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
According to the question of the problem, this study is intended in investigating English for young learners at SDN Bangunrejo 02 Soko – Tuban in 2011/2012 academic years.
1.4 Limitation of the Study
In SDN Bangunrejo 2 Soko – Tuban, there are four classes that have English programs which apply English as local content subject. There are class II, IV, V and VI. This study takes only one class because of limited time and doing this study.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The finding of the study is expected to give some important contributions for the teachers, students, and other researchers. First, to the English teachers at the elementary school who get problem in choosing teaching technique which appropriate for teaching English to young learners, this study is expected to contribute important information of the effectiveness of TPR technique. If this study reveals the TPR is effective and enables to up grade the students achievement in learning English, they may adopt it into their teaching strategies, and apply or event collaborate it with other techniques in order to improve and develop the teaching of English in Elementary Schools.
Second, this study is introduce another possible way of learning English that enable the student to practice new vocabularies alone at home, besides at school. Finally, to other researcher who are interested in developing teaching techniques, this study could be useful to provide scientific reference for further research in contributing the improvement of the technique of teaching English to young learners.
1.6 Definition of Key Terms
To avoid misinterpretation, it is necessary to give explanation on several terms in this study. The definitions are as follow:
- TPR (Stands of Total Physical Response) refers to foreign language teaching technique for the beginners which use command to teach the target language, in which the student are to give physical responses instead of verbal responses to the teachers commands.
- Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learners to learn, setting the condition for learning. (Nathan gage, 1964: 269).
- English language is language that becomes at in international language. It is spoken by people all over the words by developing countries.
- Young learners are learners in elementary school aging 9-10 years old who are learning English as foreign language.
- SDN Bangunrejo 02 Soko – Tuban is located at Jl. Bangunrejo Kec. Soko – Tuban.
Name: NUR FAUZAN (1106080197)
FKIP/ Bhs. Inggris 2008 C
AN ANALYSIS OF CHARACTERIZATION, CONFLICTS AND ITS RESOLUTION TO FIND OUT THEME IN CHARLOTTE BRONTE’S SHIRLEY
AN ANALYSIS OF CHARACTERIZATION, CONFLICTS AND ITS RESOLUTION TO FIND OUT THEME IN CHARLOTTE BRONTE’S SHIRLEY
Literature is the most creative and widespread work of writing, which its expressions and forms carry out temporal ideas of some social, cultural, and intelectual shift of society, as a dokument of civilizations to assimilate and also manifiest others either individual ‘thought’ or mob perceptions, or as a mean of comunicating, entertaining and amusing through its aestetic expression. We all consider that our parents narrated story and experience to teach us philosophical, social, cultural, morals and norms of communityon our first-born age of living to occupy, to teach, to please and comfort us through our sleeping course and deserved events, and as now at stage of adulthood we like reading literature to pass our time enjoyable by its artistic expression as welll we all swayed and reflected by its aesthetic and imaginative utterances through the humanistic presentation of life.
Literature informs us joy, pain, victory, belief, failure, fear, grief and balance to voice our concern, embodies our attitude or reflects us through its remarkable issue of narrrations. Novel as one of imaginative literature is being the complete reflection of life to the reader as we all discern through its performance and look. Intrinsic elements in the novel is constructed definitely as such techniques to please the reader through its course of reading and extrinsic elements is also being a significant factor for an author to scratch more his intended work as giving a soul to the work emotionally, expressively and delicately either.
This analysis has focused on the intrinsic elements to find out theme in the novel and also build and derive out sort terms of illuminations, justifications, and reflectiond to all readers who interest to the work. The following stages on this work are Chapter 1, which is explaining the essence and also the reasons of why this analysis done, the former statement of the problem formulated hopefully would confront the answers through the analysis board. In Chapter II review of related literature we would tackle the theory and descriptions of any term applied by the researcher to consent and clarify the terms will be analyzed next pages. Those terms are characters and characterization, conflict, types of conflict, resolution, theme as the last topic of his discussion and also humanistic view of personality and its board. The effect of psychological conflict would be alluded out also to have some plain approach of the psychological conflict as being a mean of deriving out the resolution and theme its self as the final terms of the analysis. The next chapter is research methodology, which meet head-on the method of research implemented in analyzing the characterization, conflict, resolution, and theme in the novel, which are research design, research object, data collection and data analysis.
The next stage is the analysis itself, in which we will view the analysis of major character, major character’s characterization, conflict, especially psychological conflict and its effect of psychological conflict itself to the major character to reasonably derive out next following analysis of resolution itself and draw up the theme in the novel ‘Shirley’ as the eventual term of discussion. The term of analysis will extract the passages, illustrations, comments found in the novel, which particularly it will make clear to the questions of observations, evaluations and justifications and to support any approach and explaination of the research either, based on the related theory whose key terms have been already discussed in the other previous chapter.
The last chapter is Chapter V, which contains conclution and suggestion of the analysis. The researcher should draw some conclution to the analysis that had been done and suggestion, where it is either expected or anticipated to wholly complete vigorously all of the analysis. The researcher must comment upon the previous analysis and its item difficulty of analysis faced, which is supposed to restrict and clear up the discussing work as the last task of either informing the terms, explaining the work, or enlightening readers’ vision.
1.1 Background of the Study
Human being the magnificent creature of God, has intelegence or intelectual ability, sense, dream, desire, passion, imagination. Through our superiors we could consruct joy and pleasure, either respect or create arts and beauty, and reflect the world or life to be such writing matters. It is a fact, indeed that we have either preference to feel, to sense and to hear everything dealt with beauty and wonderful things or the reverse, inclinations of telling stories or experiences to someone else. People tell stories for many reasons, including the sheer egotistical delight of talking, but probably most of the best story telling proceeds from one of two commendabledesires: a desire a entertain or a desire to instuct. (Barnet, Berman, Burto, 1966:13). This certain pleasuring desire is being such a universal mean of either issuing or acquiring experience, enjoyment, knowledge, and influences to the reader’s thought, vision and enterestthrough its aesthetical content. Literature may fairly be regarded as the chief art of mankind. (Little, 1966:1). Literature is the greatest mean of sharing experience, joy, knowledge or enterest to others. We are thus led to conceive of literature as a two-way communication in which original message is broadcast by the writer to a community of readers, whose response to him takes the shape of throghts, word, acts, and other messages, which react on one another and on the writer himself. (Sill, 1968: 41). It is generally said that simply another way we can experience the world around us through our imagination. (Jones 1968:1).
Literature is not only constructing such private world of imagination but also the reality picture of life. It contains the records of the peoples’ values, their throughts, their problem and conflict – in short, their whole way of life. ( Little,1966:1). The auther constucts the texts based on personal experience, desire, and knowledge of the real life and its culture, which has psecific relationships with the real word to distract us and remind the ordinary types of the real life. Luxemburg, 1989: 56 quoted by Subroto, 1997: 17). Literary work contains joy, fear, concerns, failures, expectation and etc. In a novel, we are not more exploring the inner lives experiences of the characters, but also through every incident in its designing chronological order as such reflection of cause and effect in our factual world. As such a such a reality picture of life presented we could derive general comprehensions through general lesson or themes issues by author such as social themes, oppression, corruption, love, affection, etc. Literature is simply a mirror of life, a reproduction, and thus, obviously, a social document,. (Wellek, Warren 1956: 103-4).
Literary work is recommended as a well written or the bad one depending on its content and the influence to the readers. The qualities of all good literature are both ‘something worth saying.’ Good literature adds to our understanding of life in the world around us. It embodies throught and feeling on matter of human importance and ‘something well said.’ Good book show such qualities as careful planning in the arrangement of ideas, sustained imaginative invention, and clear and vivid language from beginning to end. (Little, 1966: 2).it seem that great literature is both considering through its influence to the reader’s throught and feeling or either emotional or expressive language used.
Eventually, the crucialand basic point of literary work is theme. Theme is the general idea oe insight the entire story reveals. ( Kennedy, 1983: 103). Musically, theme is a melody constituting the basis variation, development or the like. The variations and the development cannot be random but must have a basis. (Barnet, Berman, Burto, 1966:21). Generally, the writer concludes that theme is such the basic and definite course of idea or statement of the story written in which the author means through his or her work. When someone attends at philosophical class he might be bored through the class stuck discussing for, its monotonous air and all its way but it would be earnestly digestible when it teaches us through certain incidents and events of life on term of reading literature and all its form.
Theme might be one could be derived through the preceding analysis of character, characterization, conflict and its resolution in the story. It would be attractive to talk through its certain analysis in order to find theme of the story narrated.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Depart from the essential of the background of the study at the firs stage above. This following questions below is formulated as:
- What is the characterization of the main character found in Charlotte Bronte’s Shirley?
- What are the conflicts undergone by main character in Charlotte Bronte’s Shirley?
- What is the resolution of conflict in Charlotte Bronte’s Shirleyzz?
- What is the theme found through analyzing characterization, conflict and resolution in Charlotte Bronte’s Shirley?
1.3 Objective of the Study
To have such great deal through the question above, the purposes of this analysis are as follows:
- To know scrupulously the characterization of main character in Charlotte Bronte’s Shirley?
- To know sort of conflicts in Charlotte Bronte’s Shirley
- To know the resolution of the conflicts in the Charlotte Bronte’s Shirley
- To find the theme in Charlotte Bronte’s Shirley
1.4 Scope and Limitation of the Study
Each kind of analysis has its limit. To be focused on the analysis he limits the discussion as below:
- The characterization that will be analyzed, is limited major character of Charlotte Bronte’s Shirley
- Conflict that will be discussed is limited on major character’s psychological conflict, so the psychological analysis will be done specially concerning on the psychological conflict on the major character.
- Resolution will be discussed after analyzing major character’s psychological conflict
- The writer will derive the theme of CharlotteBronte’s Shirley after analyzing sort elements above
1.5 Significance of the Study
Theoretically, through this analysis, it will convey some useful information and clear understanding about literary theory itself and specially everything that has related to characterization, conflict and the resolution.
Practically, it will contribute the students’ ability to comprehend of how the important of literature is to be taught. It is supposed to be sort references of concerning-literary students to enhance their ability and being sort simply knowledge to the reader about the literary works and also its plain vision of the content in novel itself.
1.6 Definition of the Key Terms
to the plainly illuminate the subject used on his analysis or to have such clear image of the tittle presented this following description would be substantial things to apprehend the spots of next chiseling pages of his work
- Character : character as an imaginative person who inhabits a story (Kennedy, 1983: 45)
- Characterization : the depicting of clear images of a person (Jones, 1968: 84)
- Conflict : conflict is a clash of action, ideas, desire, or wills (Perrine, 1974: 44)
- Resolution : it records the outcome of the conflict and establishes some new equilibrium. (Pickering, 1996:78)
REWEW OF RELATED ARTICLE
In this chapter, the writer will present the review of related literature concerning the topic and structure analysis of his discussion. This chapter basically will discuss about literature, the novel, as one of many form of literature and its intrinsic elements will be analyzed. They are character and characterization, conflict and its resolution, and theme as the object of literary research and other humanistic theory of personality that will be means of psychological and behavioral approaches and criticisms on analyzing the internal conflict undergone by man character as intended to be discussed on the other stage in this course of analysis.
There are so many explanations from experts of literature. Some are as follows:
Stevick (1967: 282) states literature is not primary an effort either of faith or of reason; essentially, it is an effort of the creative imagination to discover reality and through the resources of language, to interpret our encounter with it, our affective appraisal of it, in as fully engaged a human wary as our language resources (for example, our insight into metaphor, our feeling for verbal rhythms, our sense of syntactical relationships, our appreciation of words or symbols of another level or reality) can make possible.
The novel is a sort of long newspaper story; the very word “novel” comes from an Italian word meaning a little few things, and is related to the French word that gives us “news.” (Barnet, Berman, Burto, 1996: 426). There are many description of what novel is, but most of them basically concern about its length.
2.1.2 Character and Characterization
Kennedy (19s3: 45) articulates that a character is presumably an imagined person who inhabits a story – although that simple definition may admit to a few exceptions. (In George Stewart’s novel Storm, the protagonist is the wind; in Richard Adams’s Watership down, the central characters are rabbits). But usually we recognize’ in the main characters of a story, human personalities that become familiar to us.
Abrams (197121) affirms that characters are the persons in a dramatic or narrative work endowed with moral and dispositional qualities that are expressed in what they say-the dialogue-and what they do – the action. The alternative methods available by author in characterizing the persons in a narrative are showing and telling.
18.104.22.168 Definition of Conflict
The word “conflict” is taken from Latin word “contra”. It means “against” and Fligere, which its meaning is to strike. So, conflict is an act of striking together between individual and group. Life is full of conflict. Should I stay home and study for that big exam or go out on the town with my friends? It is one of the ordinary conflicts we face of ourselves habitually. IE common sense, Perrine (1974:44) states that conflict is clash of actions, ideas, desires, or wills. Wellek and Warren (1989:285) articulate that conflict is something dramatically spotlighted or two surviving forces, which both have the equal power of struggle and contextually dealt with action of either accepting or releasing. (Quoted by Nurgiyanto, 1996:122). In psychological aspect, Runyon (198a: 159) remarks that conflict is the simultaneous arousal of two or more incompatible motives. Thus, some conclusion could deduce what conflict is, that is either slash disagreement or collision of two or more interest, which may happen either externally or internally on each individual
22.214.171.124 Conflict as Element in Literature
Pickering (1996: 32) utters that most plots originate in some kind of significant conflict. Conflict, then, is the basic opposition, or tension, that sets the plot of a short story in motion; it engages the reader, builds the suspense or the mystery of the work, and arouses expectation for events that are to follow.
Nurgiyanto (1996: 122) defines that conflict, which notably an important incident (thus, it could be either functional incident, prominent, or kernel) is essential element in the development of plot.
126.96.36.199 Type of Conflict
Generally, conflict could be shared into three kinds. According to Jones (1968: 30-1) they are as follows:
- Physical or elemental conflict
Here we usually find a man in conflict with nature. In such story we may go through the struggle of a man climbing a mountain, a woman fighting to survive a cyclone, a man fighting an army of ants on his plantation. The principal appeal of this kind of story is almost wholly to the emotions of the reader.
- Social conflict
In this type the struggle is of person against another, two women seeking to marry the same man, two men competing for a job, a detective patted against a criminal, a child in conflict with his parent.
Resolution might be the result of the complicated incidents faced by characters through his or her destiny on the stories. In this case, resolution is some significant accomplishment, which relieves the character at the end of the story. Resolution is the rounding off of the action, the conclusion, one way or the other, of the conflict. The resolution needs to be a satisfying ending, one that gives s feeling of completeness. Whether the ending ‘happy’ or ‘unhappy’ one feels that a good plot is well rounded off, the conflict fully explored, if not fully settled. (Little, 1966:85).
(Barnet, Berman, Bruto, 1966: 20-l) concern that usually a story is about something, it has a meaning a point-a theme. The artist was guided by a theme in his choice of details; of many possible details he chose to present only a few The musical sense of the word ‘theme’ can help us to understand what theme in literature is ‘ a melody constituting the basis of variation, development, or the like.’ The variation and the development cannot be random but must have a basis. As Flannery O’ Connor says, “Some people have the notion that you can read the story and then climb out of it into the meaning. A story is a way to say something that can’t be said any other way.”
Meanwhile, Kennedy (1983: 103) simply states that the theme of a story is whatever general idea or insight the entire story reveals. In literary fiction theme is seldom so obvious. That is a theme needs not be a moral or s message; it may be what the happenings add up to, what the story is about
2.2 Humanistic Theory of Personality
Personality is a particular pattern of behavior and thinking prevailing across time and situations that differentiates and individual from another. (Buskist, 1991: 496). Freud’s concept that there are three different forces in inner human self that is the id, the ego and superego. The id represents basic biological urgings of the individual or human instinct. The ego or self is functioning on the reality principle when the child is able to delay eating until “mealtime” and will wait until placed on the toilet seat before voiding. The superego or conscience begins to emerge as a dominant force’ The superego represents the internalized values of the society to which the individual belongs. (Quoted by Runyon, 1984:28).
2.2.1 Effect of Conflict
Unsolved problem or conflicts can cause psychological problem, such as anxiety, mental disorder and psychosomatic illness.
188.8.131.52 Anxiety Disorder
Anxiety is a vague, unpleasant feeling; a premonition that something bad will happen. Anxiety usually doesn’t have an obvious cause, it is this vagueness of anxiety that makes it so difficult to handle. It may be normal and appropriate decisions, or they may suffer acute anxiety attacks-moments of unbearable anxiety, bordering on panic. (Runyon, 1984: 126-7,331).
184.108.40.206 Mental Disorder
The symptoms of mental disorder fall into four categories: physical, mental, emotional and behavior symptoms. Some of the mental symptoms are obsession, aphasia (inability to speak or move) illusion, and delusion and soon expressed through crying, silence and refusal to talk to (Crow, 1967: 351) or either organic disorder is known from psychical cause or functional disorder for which the origins appear to be emotional-related to the personality and grief experiences of life as grief, guilt, loneliness and depression. (Butrer, Lewis, 1983:47, 55)
220.127.116.11 Psychosomatic Illness
Psychosomatic reaction usually experienced by those who have severe conflicts. Usually these bodily changes return to their normal functioning with the reduction of emotional tension It continues to suffer physical discomfort or pain, which it interprets to be symptomatic of diseased condition as pains, sleeplessness, poor appetite, labored breathing and then confront to asthma, hay fever, and others. (Crow 1967: 390, 339)
2.2.2 Personality Theory of H.J Eysenck
Eysenck has plain perceptions about his theory concerning through his definition of personality as follows.
“Personality is the sum total f actual or potential behavior-pattern of organism as determined by heredity and environment, it originates and develops through the functional interaction of the four main sectors into which these behavior patterns are organized; the cognitive sectors (intelligence), the cognitive sector (character), the affective sector (temperament), and the somatic sector (constitution). (Quoted by Suryabrata, 1997: 339).
2.3 Approach of Personality
There are three methods generally used to have personality approach. They are as follow:
- Life record contains notes or references about individual behavior in everyday living activity, to measure the object it could be used behavioral rating.
- Self-rating, self-rating will complete the data of life record or in other word it is the interior of objective life record observed.
- Objective test, it means sort observations through some specific conditioned situation by comparing it with ordinary behavioral situation. (Cattell, quoted by Suryabrata, 1997: 353)
Through this stage, he will converse on the method of his research of characterization and conflicts on Charlotte Bronte’s Shirley. The discussion will identify the method he uses of analyzing the term. They are as follows:
3.1 Research Design
According to Moleong that the technique implemented in literary analysis is qualitative research, which doesn’t apply either such numerical accounts or certain numerical data. This research is emphasized on natural aspect and based on the characteristic of data itself. The researcher has a significant correlation to the contextual factors in literary work. Literary analysis advanced is to comprehend both cultural and humanistic aspect scratched at literary work (Quoted by Pradobo, 2003: 23). Additionally Pradobo (2003: 23) also concerns that the purpose of descriptive researches is contributing sort description and definition of some proceedings scrupulously to build such natural perceptions to the object.
In this case, the objective criticism is definitely applied of analyzing the characterization, conflict, its resolution and finding out the theme in Shirley through previous analysis done. It means that the analysis will stand free from the external aspect of audience and the author. It is focused only on the intrinsic elements of the novel.
3.2 Research Object
Every method applied has it object of research. Whether all the material of literary research is generally literary activities, therefore its official object is determined through such point of view used in research activity such as the relation between the work and its reader’s intuition, the official object is merely the reader’s reaction of a given work. (Segers, 1978 quoted by Pradobo, 2003:156).
So, in this case the object of his research is crucially taken from the novel ‘Shirley’ written by Charlotte Bronte in 1849 and published by Penguin Popular Classic in 1994, Charlotte Bronte’s Shirley consists of 37 chapter and 666 pages.
3.3 Data Collection
There are several techniques of collecting data. Some technique applied in this term is library technique, which is drawing data through source of written matters to be such key instrument and sort of supporting linguistic context and the form of data sources. (Subroto, 1997: 35). The data collection and its establishment indeed should consider the existence of the items as the elements of the item itself. So, the corps at there should be partial and openly one. (Pradobco, 2003: 156). Data is the prominent thing of research activity. Without having data we couldn’t do such analytical activity or a significant research. Thus, data itself must be clear and accountable enough; data in this case should be well chosen since it could give any answers and explanations of the problem presented. (Subroto, 1997: 34). The primary data of his research is the novel itself and the rest is the other references, which might be needed an developing the criticism or an approach of research activity. The data of his analysis activity is dealing with the terms of characterization, conflict and its resolution and theme as the final term of his discussion. Theme will the derived after having accomplishing the previous three terms. The chronological order of collecting the data needed is as follows:
1) Reading and understanding assiduously alt the content of Charlottes Bronte’s Shirley to have such clear illuminations and deep comprehension of the object, which will be analyzed
2) Classifying data dealing with the course of characterizing identifying the conflict and its resolution.
3) Selecting the relevant and reasonable data by considering the purpose of the analysis itself.
4) Organizing the data to construct any descriptions of illumination toward paragraph, passages, illustrations and dialogues found in Charlotte Bronte’s Shirley.
3.4 Data Analysis
After having organized the data by comprehending either an ordinary usage of language implemented, it aesthetic and unique expression or an extraordinary of vocabulary or lexical meaning. Data itself, in one side should be displayed, and the other is should be reduced to attain the clear meaning and its significant function. (Subroto, 1997: 36). Additionally, the data will be analyzed through the course of corresponding the form and its meaning. Content analysis is sort procedure of organizing the data to carry out sort terms of classification, summarization and systematization dealt with research problems and the content analysis.
According to Miles and Huberman, 1984 (Quoted by Aminuddin, 1990: 18) significantly that the term of analyzing data should be done frequently. The research is complete if it is displaying the course of collecting data until the writing of the final report of research. Thus, the next terms of analyzing are as follows:
1) Classifying and organizing data, which deal with the purpose of the analysis.
2) Analyzing the data through its classification of characterization, conflict and its resolution to derive out theme in Charlotte Bronte’s Shirley.
3) Concluding and summarizing the terms as the result of the course of analyzing data.
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